Secret Intelligence Service

Mental and Physical. VII


Special Operations in Counter-Terror



Photograph : U.K. Special Air Service on the street, during a counter-terror operation





Welcome back


Know that people are capable of virtually unlimited degradation. People are also capable of practically unlimited improvement, and the achievement of success depends on the goals and zeal in their pursuit


“Much of human wisdom is summed up in two words; want and hope.”

Alexandre Dumas. (1802 – 1870)

“Regarding the latter – hope, then hoping for what exactly? What cannot be had and while time expires pointlessly on such?”



This is to continue the Mental and Physical Section. Remember that here we are about the application of what we have previously discussed; the knowledge and practice of a very particular skill set, that of counter-terrorism operations.


Supplement / Seminar



Secret Intelligence Service (C-IV)

The instructor puts on the table several items; cartridges from various weapons, buttons, insignia, flaps of camouflage, stones, cigarettes of different varieties, and a compass. You are allowed to look at all this for a few seconds, then the composition is closed with a tarpaulin and you are asked to list everything represented on it.

About what the not warned novitiate enumerates at best is half of what he/she saw. Should be an amendment by the instructor. “You did not state what kind of weapons ammunition and how many of them, how many stones, what sizes and what they are originating, how many cigarettes and what sorts they are, how many spots there were in camouflage, and did not enumerate exactly what the insignia was.” For inaccuracy and carelessness a novitiate/potential operative, call what you like, produces an outfit out of turn. Further training is in progressing more. The display time is shortened. The number of items and their range are changing. When you begin to accurately describe everything that is shown, the lessons are transferred to nature.

At a distance of 100 metres you are asked to look at the landscape with the naked eye, then turn your back and the assistant makes minor changes near the target field. You are given a command to face to the targets and tell about the changes that have taken place there. Gradually, the training distances increase to 300 metres. At this distance, the sniper must detect changes in the position of objects with the naked eye – broken branches, trampled grass, swaying bushes, smoke from a cigarette, the appearance and disappearance of small objects (the size of a tin can). It is with the naked eye, because in the process of such training, vision is visibly aggravated.

Then the novitiate alternately equips the disguised positions, and again, with the naked eye, at the same distances of up to 300 metres, train in finding the signs of these positions (mowed grass, cleared sectors of shelling, shaded places on the edge of the forest, etc.). Then the same thing is done in the movement on the machine – the novitiate (you) determines at a distance of the place, according to the terrain terrain suitable for setting up the enemy sniper ambushes. Snipers trained in this way can not be over-emphasised in mobile actions – at the head of the marching outpost, when escorted by columns, in the reconnaissance or search-hunting groups. Those who have equipped such positions in training, can predict the place of their setting in combat conditions. This is quite real – a person who is waiting for an attack in motion, is very aggravated by the susceptibility.

In the above-described training, a psycho-physiological method known to practical physicians is used to mobilise the reserve of a living organism. With daily activities, a person needs constant receipt of some amount of vital everyday information. It is known that for deaf people who do not receive a part of everyday operational information, this loss is compensated for by the increased development of visual observation. Therefore, a knowledgeable instructor will force the novitiate to tighten his/her ears with a rigid requirement to perform the task of identifying the target at distances of 300 metres or more. The results are noticeably progressing, as well as visibly worse.

Training of observation is transferred to the training ground. At distances of more than 300 metres, snipers-observers in any cases are already forced to use optical devices. At distances of 300, 350, 400 metres, the novitiate is tasked with examining the terrain to each square decimeter for several hours, clearly determining the distances to the landmarks, forecasting the equipment positions by the enemy sniper positions and making a fire card. At night, secretly advance and equip the disguised positions. The creative initiative at the same time is encouraged in every possible way. The same task is given to another group of potential operatives, but from that front line. With the dawn, both train in the detection of equipped positions on changes in the relief and other signs. The first one who finds them receives encouragement, the last one – recovery. Exactly the same training is then conducted at longer distances – up to 600 and 800 metres.



Secret Intelligence Service (C-IV)


There is no one but yourself to restore order. If you are touched by some problem, then you are the person who should deal with it. And everyone understands that you want to live, relax, throw out of your head all troubling thoughts, but, unfortunately, life is arranged so that quietly living does not work. As soon as you relax, those who want to take advantage of your state enter in, so each and every day you need to protect your way of life and go forward.



(C-IV) Secret Intelligence Service

Mental and Physical – Field Skills

In conditions of avoiding meeting with armed groups, in some situations the question may arise; do you use or not use fire? The answer can be only one – do not use. And if you have to build a fire, then only in cases where there is a threat to your life. Anyone who acts on enemy territory must always remember that the use of fire greatly increases the probability of detection and subsequent capture.

When making a fire, it is necessary to take into account the peculiarities of the terrain where you are, the time of day, the choice of means for kindling, fuel and the way of making. The flame from the fire must be invisible. The place is chosen taking into account the least probability of being noticed by the enemy. During all conditions, a fire must be small and lightly smoke-free.

A bonfire is easier to disguise or make less visible during sunset, twilight or in bad weather. At this time, haze and a fog cover the area, hide the hills and hollows, forming a continuous veil on the horizon. Smoke from a fire will be less noticeable during a light mist in the early morning and at sunset – the most likely time when locals are cooking. Another way to mask smoke from the fire is to make it under a tree. Smoke, rising upwards, dissipates well in the dense crone of the tree. However, you should not light a fire under a large tree in the winter, snow that has accumulated on the branches, can collapse down and extinguish the flames.

You cannot build a fire under dried and coniferous trees, among dense thickets of bush, on the blockage of dry boughs – this can lead to a fire, nor dangerous places with dry grass, reeds, cane or moss. In sultry weather, a fire can burst from a spark. On peat bogs unnoticed smouldering can go inside and flare up by fire far away from the fire. If you have to build a fire on a dry swamp or peat bog, make a litter of sand, earth or stones. In order to avoid a fire in dry weather, dry grass, moss, dried pine needles and leaves are removed in the forest or steppe at the breeding site. In any case with a fire it is necessary to be cautious. A large flame or fire will clearly indicate your location to the enemy. Secure yourself from a fire and camouflage a fire with the help of landings, stones or snow.

Fuel for a fire : In dry and especially forested areas, dead wood and dead wood are sufficient. However, deadwood is preferable, since the trees and twigs lying on the ground are often moist and decayed. The most convenient fuel for a camouflaged fire is hardwood. Smooth and almost without smoke are dry birch and alder burn. The beech, and oak are especially hot. Fir and aspen firewood gives off a lot of sparks.

On the shores of the seas, fueled by trunks and branches of trees, boards and other combustible waste can serve as fuel.

Firewood for a fire during a night in a high mountain zone should be brought with you, collecting dry branches at the upper boundary of the forest zone.

Good tablets dry fuel (dry alcohol) should always be with you, especially when dealing with extreme situations. Even a small supply of tablets is enough to heat food.

For fire, you need to use brushwood as thick as a pencil. It emits sufficient heat, completely, albeit quickly, burns and does not smoke. Raw branches, especially with green leaves, can not be used, since they are very fuming. Prepared fuel is stacked in such a way that good air access is provided for quick burning of the fire without the formation of smoke.

Making a fire: To facilitate the making of a fire, any person who ventures to cross a dangerous territory should have dry alcohol, a few candle stubs. In the forest, to this stock will be added tarry knots of resin of coniferous trees, pieces of birch bark. No matter how damp it is in the woods, a little dry fuel can always be found under the roots of the old tree projecting above the ground, overhanging stones and in other secluded places where rain has not penetrated. The dried lower branches and branches of trees are suitable for kindling. If they get wet in the rain, then you can get to the dry wood by stabbing with a knife a wet layer of bark

It is better to plant a bonfire like this. First is kindling – resins of dry matter, dry needles, grass, thin dry twigs, birch bark. The kindling is ignited from below, then it will burn up. As the ignition increases, thicker branches are laid. Between all these twigs, larvae and brushwood, there must be a gap for air access so that the fire flares up faster.

To prepare a fire, prepare several dry sticks in advance. Scratch them so that the chips remain on the stick. Cover the shavings with dry birch bark, moss, small branches without leaves. In wet rainy weather, use dry alcohol tablets. Fuel is poured a little, so as not to extinguish the fire. If the material is not sufficiently dry, light a candle stump and drip the paraffin wax onto the chips. Save matches. Their stock is limited.

In the absence of matches, fire can be obtained with the help of lenses from devices or glasses.

If you have the skills, you can get fire without matches using improvised tools. First you need to prepare a dry tinder. To do this, finely chop the dry bark of a tree or use wood dust from a trunk, eaten by insects. As a tinder can be used threads, parts of clothing, gauze, cotton wool, fluff, bird nests, etc.

If possible, tinder is recommended to be moistened with gasoline or sprinkled with a small amount of gunpowder.

Get the spark to ignite the tinder with the help of flint and a piece of metal.

If there is no flint, use a stone. The stone, it is necessary to hold over the tinder and strike it hard with the blunt side of the knife or with some piece of metal, directing the sparks to the tube. As soon as the tinder begins to smolder, it should be gently inflated before the flame appears and ignite the kindling. When you get fire in this way, remember the noise produced by metal and stone striking against each other. If there is a danger of your detection, it is better not to use this method.

A good result is the use of flint lighters. Several such flints, inserted in the automatic pencil instead of the lead, should be an indispensable attribute of the emergency stock. Such a pencil is packaged in a waterproof shell (such as polyethylene).

To get a sheaf of sparks, just flip flint on a rough surface of stone or metal.


(C-IV) Secret Intelligence Service

Mental and Physical – Field Skills



(C-IV. Secret Intelligence Service

Mental and Physical – Field Skills

When overcoming the swamp, it is necessary to know that the swamp can be traversed :

(I) If it is covered with thick grass alternately with sedge (in a dry time you can even drive)

(II) If there is a pine shoot on the swamp

(III) If the swamp is covered with a continuous thicket of moss and a thick layer (up to 30 cm) of strips – old, decayed moss (withstands the load of machines on caterpillar tracks).

The swamp is more difficult to pass :

(I) If there are frequent puddles of stagnant water among moss (you have to wade alone along mossy strips and ridges covered with low bushes)

(II) If a cotton grass grows on the swamp, the grass on which, after flowering, there remain, like dandelions, the heads of down

(III) If the swamp is covered with a thick bush, willow, alder, spruce or birch.

The swamp is almost impossible to pass :

(I) If it is covered with reeds

(II) If a grass cover swims over the swamp

Check the thickness of the peat layer, its density and hardness of the soil can be using a metal pin with a diameter of 20 mm with incisions of 10 cm.

To overcome extensive swampy areas, it is possible to construct devices out of improvised means. The permeability of a continuous peat bog can be determined by the simplest methods.

In the off-season (especially in the autumn), walking routes often pass through a marsh bound by frost.

If the ice holds a person with a backpack, then it’s easy to walk on it. But sometimes early falling snow is delayed by the freezing of the swamp. It is covered with a thin ice crust, in which case movement along it is dangerous. Security measures en route through the swamp in the off-season are the same as in the summer.

It should be borne in mind that it is easy to pass through a frozen swamp, but sometimes only the surface layer freezes and it is dangerous to walk along such a marsh. Quickly and well freeze grassy marshes, the ice on them forms a solid solid crust. Poorly frozen marshes, covered with thickets of willow and alder. The outskirts of the marshes freeze worse. Mossy marshes with a layer of hair are frozen more slowly than herbaceous; the ice on them is easily cracked and fails. Marshes, overgrown with shrubs, are better passable.

The movement along the impenetrable swamp should be carried out by a chain with an interval of 4-5 m, a trace in the trail if the path is not along the alloy. Step to put it gently, without jerks and sudden movements. The path is safer to lay on bumps, near bushes and trunks of trees. The danger of failure in this case is insignificant, since under the silt layer there is usually a hard ground.

When walking on bumps, the leg should be placed on the middle, with the entire foot and at the same time smoothly transfer the body without jumps, keeping balance.

To maintain balance, you need to lean on a pole. In this case, for the insurance and support, a pole is put forward a little forward, onto which the worker leans and successively smoothly transfers the weight of the body from one leg to the other.

A big mistake is jumping from a hummock. Because of their instability when jumping, balance is lost, which entails a fall and injury.

Most dangerous in the swamp are overgrown ponds, the surface of which is covered with bright green grass. It’s a swamp. It is almost impassable. Therefore, it is recommended to bypass the hot places. If, due to necessity (a distant and complex detour), the group still has to go through the swamp, then all security measures should be taken.

Before stepping on the site, you need to outline the path of movement. For safety reasons, move along such a swamp site one by one with an interval of 5-7 m.

In order to avoid rupture, participants should not follow the trail. The water patches encountered on the way need to be bypassed, this window is the rupture of layer, where it is very thin. Pits with swamp water should also be avoided.

For insurance, it is necessary to constantly keep the pole at the ready position.

Fallen into the quagmire, you need to quickly pull the pole to itself and lie on it with your chest. If you are not able to rise, then you should not make unnecessary movements, so as not to break the fusion even further. In this position, you should not allow sharp and convulsive movements and lose self-control.

Assistance to the fallen should be provided quickly, without fuss and at the same time carefully. In the beginning, one should conceal the nearest place from it by poles and branches. Then cautiously get close to him, help to remove the backpack and get out.

The hollows up to 50 cm deep and more are better to pass along the poles, which consistently fit in the direction of movement.

The sequence of laying poles is that, as they are released, they are passed forward. Thus, paving, the group moves forward.

To walk on a slippery parts – should be carefully, leaning as far as possible on the pole, with a step or with a turn of the foot to the outside.

If the reconnaissance has established that the area of ​​the swamp has a solid under the layer of water, then it is possible to move the trail forward following the lead. Movement in any case should be carried out smoothly, insurance is mandatory.

When moving through a swamp, you need to constantly monitor the direction, mark landmarks, put hangers, attaching to them small pieces of cloth or bandage. Marking the way can also come in handy when returning back, in case it is impossible to move forward.

Passing the swamp in shoes and clothes : At the same trousers should be tucked, so that they do not cling and do not interfere with walking. Equipment, products and clothing should be packed in a plastic bag in the middle of the backpack.

Before overcoming the swamp, it is necessary to know as much as possible about it; where are the most hot places, the possibility of bypassing them, where dry places (islands) in case of an unforeseen stop, etc. qHow to get out of the swamp?

It can happen either in a marshy area, or after heavy downpours, in a forest or other open space. This can happen after a severe drought, when surface waters evaporate and only underground ones remain, which sometimes disappear under the silt layer and are imperceptible, such bogs are very dangerous, since their depth can be very large and it is almost impossible to get out of it.

The probability of being tightened in the swamp increases in the summer and autumn periods, in the winter this does not happen, since the surface layer freezes, so it becomes very durable and it is very difficult to leave under it. Therefore, it is in the summer and autumn periods that you need to be extremely attentive and look under your feet when you are in such a place.

As a rule, swampy terrains occupy a large area in which there are islands, they can cross this terrain, but sometimes a durable layer of land turns out to be a real quagmire. Suck in the swamp can instantly or gradually.

If the bog is very deep, then a person becomes sucked in instantly, it is impossible to get out of such a swamp if there is not a person nearby who could help. If it sucks in gradually, then there is a chance to get out of the abyss. But this requires knowledge of some rules.

The main rule that you need to know is not to make any sharp movements when you are in a swamp. If the swamp sucks slowly, there are all chances to be saved. First, when you are in a marshy area, you need to get a stick, it is desirable that it is broad and strong, that is a real bar. This stick can be your salvation, so you should choose it carefully, and do not take the first one that comes to hand.

If you are in a swamp, slipping off a hummock, you will most likely quickly suck, because by inertia you will continue your movement, thus helping the quagmire, so it’s better to fall on your stomach or back, so you will suck in much more slowly.

If you do not go under too fast and you have a stick, then you should put it gently in front of you, well, if the nearest stronghold is no more than half a meter, then the end of the stick will fall to the ground and it will be easier for you to get out. But even if the stick completely lies in the swamp, you need to grab it and try to transfer your center of gravity to this stick, so you will get some kind of bridge and you can get to the land or wait for help, without risking to finally go to silt.

If you have absolutely nothing at hand that could serve as a lever, try to occupy a horizontal position. Do it as carefully as possible, carefully moving your center of gravity from the legs to the trunk, if you can do it, then the mass of your body will decrease significantly and you will stop dragging into the swamp. In this situation, you can wait for help.

But, being in the swamp, in no case can you make sharp movements, wave your hands and try to pull your feet, this will make you even more desiccated. Those who are in this position cannot even loudly shout, nor call for help, and even more, wave free limbs.

If the top of your torso is still on the loose, then you need to take off your jacket or cloak and throw it on the surface of the swamp, you can also get out of it, it will not allow the swamp to suck you. qIf the swamp sucks very quickly, then only an outsider can help, you must throw a rope or stick along which someone caught in a swamp could get out on a hard surface.

Oftentimes, in order to pull one person out of the swamp, at least three people on land are required, since the suction force at the swamp is very high.

It should also be remembered that if a person is pulled from a swamp, then in no case should the person be released to take a breather, a slightly released person will immediately go into the quagmire, gaining additional energy from the land when pushing away.



(C-IV) Secret Intelligence Service – Field Skills

Combat sniper ‘fishing’ is a responsible occupation, requiring special precision and concentration. This process requires not only known physical endurance and hellish patience, but also a large expenditure of nervous energy. Accurate shooting is always associated with the stress of the nervous system. Increasing the effectiveness of sniper shooting is largely helped by the knowledge of physiological and psycho-physiological processes occurring in the body of the shooter. First of all, the sniper has no right to emotions. With mental tension, motor skills and so-called static coordination are violated. Coordination resistance and static endurance are reduced. Appears jitters, which begins to drive the pulse. Beginning shooters all the above described is referred to the so-called pre-start state before the shooting. Pre-start mobilisation status physiologically justifies itself in the dynamic types of combat activity, and at the statics of shooting it takes the course of ordinary stress. How to deal with this?

Firstly : When you release adrenaline and other stress hormones, many vitamins burn in the body. Therefore, in everyday life, a sniper needs to constantly fill their deficit. Better digestibility of vitamins requires a healthy liver.

Secondly : During any stress in the body, much glucose burns. One instinctively wants the sweet. Experiment – when you begin to ‘drive a pulse’ during the shooting, put a small sweet and sour candy under your tongue. After a while, the mandrake will decrease, then disappear altogether. Why did this happen? The body received an influx of sweet, and to the same attention was switched to taste sensations. In addition, from this simple technique, visual acuity increases, because the sonic reflexively mobilises the visual apparatus. This mobilisation is also reflexively promoted by swallowing and chewing movements.

For the removal of anxiety and its prevention all the time slowly and deeply inhale through the nose, and exhale only through the mouth. Or inhale through the left nostril, and exhale only through the right nostril. Simultaneously rub the hands. Warm up each finger until it feels warm. With the knuckles of a clenched fist, stretch the inner surface of the palm of the other hand with a force. This simple technique effectively removes not only the jaundice, but also the nervous tension. There is such a process at the reflex level. You should know that the excitation mechanism is embedded in the sub-cortex, it works at a sub-conscious level. By effort of will ‘turn off’ will not work, but with reflex-physiological methods – it is quite possible. Senior servicemen do not care about the problem of mandrake – they are tempered in stress. And for beginners it is very desirable to work out the above described method of stress removal. Practice, and you will succeed.

The next stumbling block, known to all, without exception, practical hands, is static stability. This most static stability, for which the wrestlers and sportsmen are fighting endlessly, falls sharply in mobile sniping, which is typical for fighters of special forces. Not so much because the specifics of the activities of such units are mostly running. The fact is that while you have to turn your head all the time, fall on your stomach and kneel. Few people know that frequent turns of the head and its tipping back with frequent acceptance of the shooting position physiologically reduce the shooter resistance. Therefore, a sniper working in a mobile group needs to turn his/her head less and observe only in the direction that the commander of the group has determined. You can not mow with your eyes either. What to do? To train in the development of peripheral vision. Tunnel vision, which is very necessary for a sniper, does not suffer from this at all. For shooting, constantly designate shelters and folds of the terrain from which you can shoot or sit, or from the knee. You should know that after shooting lying stability deteriorates in some cases to 50% – all for the same reason lying with the head thrown back. Dense food also significantly worsens static stability.

It must also be constantly remembered that shooting resistance requires keeping active attention to this state of the body and over this process and does not tolerate tension – both muscular and mental. Rifle stability while lying down, from the knee, standing, and also in special non-standard situations depends primarily on the sense of balance that is provided by the vestibular apparatus. This stability is ensured by the continuous automatic activation of certain muscle groups. This automation depends on the so-called rectification reaction. This reflex rectification reaction works not only from the vestibular apparatus and sensors of the skin and tendons, as well as pressure sensors located in the soft tissues of the human foot. The reflex rectification reaction is largely guided by the mechanism of muscular coordination memory, the so-called balance memory of the muscles, which is the second vestibular apparatus of the living organism. This is the so-called proprioceptor muscle feeling, the essence of which has so far been little studied.

At one time, when selecting candidates for sniper schools, there was a test : If, when closing the subject’s eyes, his/her static stability and the associated rectification reaction with minor but sharp heels and differences did not change, this meant that this individual was very sensitive in not only vestibular apparatus, but also the receptors of the skin, muscles, tendons. And also the function of the above proprioceptorial muscle feeling was great. All this without the help of the eyes was able to react to vertical and horizontal displacement of parts of the body in space, and moreover – automatically return the necessary parts of the body to the desired position, in our case – to return the weapon back to the aiming line. The phenomenon of proprioceptor sensitivity is in itself an interesting topic for research and the most powerful physiological reserve for improving the quality of shooting – note.

For the sake of curiosity, try to practice shooting with closed eyes. After you took the usual classic lying (no matter, with an emphasis or with a belt), you lay down and peered at the sight, aim, close your eyes. Hold the sight picture in front of your eyes on the visual memory and match all the visible changes on it with the sensations arising in the muscles of the hands, shoulder girdle and back. Match all the visible movements of the sighting element relative to the given aiming point with the efforts in the muscles. Learn to tone the muscles to aim the aiming element at the desired aiming point and hold it there. Open your eyes and check. Repeat again. Have patience and practice this way for 3-4 weeks. Soon you will no longer be amazed by the fact that with open eyes after work blindly the sighting images will match exactly. Moreover, you yourself will not be wondering how this works. On scientific slang this is called the phenomenon of associative reflexivity. It just works out, that’s all. Proprioceptor muscle sensitivity and the reflex alignment reaction directly related to it are complex in the complex very quickly. The degree of training or the inherent quality of this reaction and determine the shooter resistance. By the way, it is worth noting that the muscular-vestibular ability trained in the above-described method improves stability and allows accurate sniper shooting in the dark when the target intersects after any flash.

After training to work blindly for about 4-5 weeks, you will note with surprise that the accuracy of the shooting has improved noticeably, and the detachments have not been clearly understood – have disappeared. Let me explain why this happens. From the well-known principle of cinema, it is known that for the perception of an individual eye by a human eye, the time of its exposure (display) should be 1 / 20-1 / 24 seconds. A faster change of frames is not perceived by the eye and lubricates the picture. But there is a phenomenon of the 25th frame, which is not perceived logically, but fixed by the subconscious. Practical hands know that it is impossible to tighten the sighting element to the aiming point. The barrel of weapons fluctuates continuously; for beginners – more, for masters – microscopically, but hesitates. The visual speed of perception is above the mentioned 1 / 20-1 / 24 seconds. That is, the visual memory of the arrow displays a picture that was 1 / 20-1 / 24 seconds ago, and not the one that exists in reality. For this 1/24 second the barrel of the rifle can ‘go’ to the side, and the shooter does not fix this. A trained muscular proprioceptor coordination sensitivity will detect this deviation immediately. The desired aiming point will be deposited in the subconscious – this will be the same 25th frame, giving an internal setting for the alignment reaction, that is, the direction of the reflex counteraction to the unwanted displacement.

In low-trained shooters (and such is the majority), vision is still the main controller of the degree of stability. When turning off the eyes of newcomers, static coordination is liberated in the direction of mobility, and the accuracy of shooting is reduced. Closing both eyes reduces the stability of standing more than twice. Moreover, if you rotate your eyes closed to the right and left, which is done by arrows to restore blood circulation in the visual apparatus, stability deteriorates two to three times more. But closing one eye has an insignificant effect on stability. Therefore, when resting the eyes, so necessary snipers, you need to close your eyes in turn – first one, then another, always leaving one eye open. Or do not close your eyes completely. It should be remembered that stability, lost with closed eyes, will be restored only after 10-15 minutes. qStatic coordination stability is largely determined by the impulses arising from sensors – the reserves of the skin, tendons, muscles and other soft tissues. It should be borne in mind that the cold increases the sensitivity of these receptor sensors, and the heat – lowers. But all this is within reasonable limits. The best temperature for this is + 5o – + 8oC. All this was once known very widely and was used in combat sniper practice. The term was kinestezia (motor sensations). And the above-mentioned receptor sensors trapped kinesthetic irritations and caused sensations of motor irritations. The role of kinesthetic analyzers is unusually great. It largely provides the targeted aiming direction and capitalally unloads the vision from the control of the physical motor processes that the shooter performs. Vision performs the aim function and includes the worked out mechanism of motor kinesthetic connections that provide muscular activity in addition to the will of the shooter. And the fuller the actions of the sniper are provided by proprioceptor sensitivity, the easier and more fully the sighting eye fulfills its assigned task.

What should you do to feel the kinesthetic sensations? The answer is; just focus on them, and you will begin to perceive them fully and clearly. Proprioceptor sensitivity in conjunction with the rectifying reaction forms the so-called pose reflex, on which firing resistance is based. Therefore, for any shooter, any exercises for the development of equilibrium are unusually useful. And it will be especially good if the shooter learns to feel heels and trim with his eyes closed and immediately straighten them. Static activity, which includes sniping shooting, is unnatural and requires increased concentration and exacerbation of focused attention. What does this mean? This means the need to control stability by sharpening the visual focus on the aiming.



(C-IV). Secret Intelligence Service

Mental and Physical. Field Skills

When shooting from a sniper rifle in the final phase of squeezing the descent, it is necessary to turn the aiming into the main task. Why so? Because the inexperienced shooters (in our time, such a majority) when the trigger is released, active attention is switched to this trigger process. As they say, attention goes to the trigger. Unbeknownst to him/herself, the shooter generally stops aiming – he/she has enough of what sees in sight. With such a subconscious orientation to inactivity, the eye reaction slows down sharply – the shooter sees not even the sighting picture that was 1 / 20-1 / 24 seconds ago, but already 1 / 10-1 / 12, that is, he/she is almost unable to To control the position of the sighting element with respect to the aiming point.

Aiming by itself sharply reduces the degree of controllability by descent. During past times in sniper schools of snipers were trained to work with a trigger finger on the descent in the same way, namely, in the muscular kinesthetic memory. How exactly? The novitiate put on the trigger finger a long paper cap and forced without firing, looking at this cap, to trigger the trigger with a uniform increase in force on the trigger finger. The uniformity of the development of the trigger effort became evident from the movement of the long cap-pointer both for the instructor and for the novitiate. And the trigger had to be released in 3 seconds (according to the account ‘twenty-two, twenty-two, twenty-two’) – no more and no less. This worked out the rate of fire. The novitiate remembered the sensations of the living flesh the effort on the descent and the degree of its increase, and the visual conjugation of the increase in this effort by moving the cap-pointer into the 3 seconds allocated for descent placed all this in the subconscious.

Therefore, at the right time, the trigger was triggered automatically on the muscular memory of the shooting finger and did not require distraction. The shot formula (sequence of actions) was as follows; after the shooter had laid down, peered at the sight (accommodation of the visual apparatus to the optical system took place), tied the target element to the aiming point with muscle tonus and held his/her breath, the shooting finger began to move on the descent along the muscular kinesthetic memory and performed descent in exactly three seconds independently in the mode of muscular automatism. The visual attention should not be distracted from the sight picture. The trigger for triggering the trigger finger was the onset of a delay in breathing.

Very many snipers experience an unpleasant moment when the finger does not pull on the descent. The reason for this is not only in the wrong grasp of the neck of the bed or pistol grip, but also in deep neuro-physiological processes. In this case, the following happens; the struggle for stability – and, consequently, for the immobility of the shooter-gun system, the center of inhibition controls the central nervous system, and the excitation center is the work of the skeletal muscles (respectively, the muscles of the fingers). In many individuals, the centre of inhibition so suppresses the center of excitation, which, roughly speaking, turns it off. Therefore, the finger does not pull on the descent. In such cases snipers with great practical effect use the so-called method of pulsating descent.

It consists in the fact that the shooting finger, before the breath is delayed, begins to produce pulsating movements on its descent; press lightly-release, press-release at a rate of about two clicks per second. These pulsating clicks are held in a tone, do not allow the watchdogs to disconnect at the excitement centre and do not allow it to shut off completely. In addition, they set up both the neuro-conduction pathways and the muscles necessary for descent. This also preserves the operability of the trigger finger with limited motor activity. Especially well pulsing method of descent manifests itself when sniping shooting at moving targets, when attention is overly focused on aiming, and the trigger is not just turned off, but, it happens, it becomes ensnared tightly.

There is a very correct and accurate expression; ‘The sniper thinks with the eyes.’ The eye is the main working organ of the sniper and must be protected. Working with any optical devices is imperceptible, but inevitably tiresome vision. Why? In any optical instrument (binoculars, periscope, stereotube and optical sight) there will always be parallax, that is, a mismatch between the optical axes of the lenses. Depending on the quality of the production, the parallax will be larger or smaller, but it will necessarily be. If you work with an optical sight and you suddenly have pain in the eyeball, then in this sight the parallax is increased.

Even when working with a well-made optical sight, the eye will become tired, and eye pain will manifest itself anyway. But when there was a pain in the eyes – it means that even for 15-20 minutes before this sighting eye was already tired. Tired vision almost does not notice mistakes in aiming. Therefore, the sniper must often rest his/her eyes. For rest of eyes lower eyelids (but do not close eyes completely), rotate with eyeballs. This will increase the flow of blood to the eye apparatus. Then do the same with your eyes open, looking at the green or light gray. Periodically train the accommodation of the vision; look at the raised thumb of the outstretched hand, then focus the sight on some object distant at a distance of 200-300 meters and then again focus the view on the finger.

When shooting a sniper rifle in any position, you must put your head so that the aiming eye does not mow – neither horizontally nor vertically. The ‘mowing’ eye quickly becomes tired, which causes involuntary jitter, while the nervous stabilisation of static stability is reflexively reduced, and as a consequence, the accuracy of shooting decreases. The static load lowers the mobility of the visual analyser, which is restored only after 25-30 minutes. So do not be surprised if you can not hit a moving target in static shooting after static work on fixed targets.

This is the standard situation.The visual acuity of professional shooters after static loads does not decrease and does not change. And in the inexperienced at distances of 300-400 meters the visual acuity changes towards hyperopia, and on short ones – 25-50 m – towards myopia. This natural physiological phenomenon is not considered a medical malformation. With systematic rifle training, the field of vision naturally expands. But with prolonged shooting, vision becomes tired and slower to recover, and the field of vision is narrowed, especially in the sighting eye. Very interesting psycho-physiological phenomenon; with active muscle work with pleasure, sensitivity and visual acuity noticeably increase.

>You can not smoke as a sniper. < After only one cigarette, the field of vision narrows, visual perception is slowed, visual acuity and sensitivity are reduced, and the visual fields fall out. This is the main reason for the unexplained and distant detachments of smoking shooters. The work of a sniper is immobility. But, as already mentioned, with the orientation to inactivity, the reaction decreases. And therefore the sniper is a cat, dormant in the mouse hole with the on-duty watchdog active attention activated. Before any shooting, it is very desirable to warm-up for 15-20 minutes – to click idle. But the sniper on the battle line can not afford it. The only way out is in a kind of kinesthetic workout.

A sniper in a stationary state reproduces the sensations of individual muscle groups when working over a shot. And this constantly keeps the sniper in working tone. By the way, with the appearance of pain or numbness in the immobile muscles, it is useful to take one or two aspirin tablets. But this as an ambulance – you can not abuse aspirin. With high-speed shooting on several suddenly appeared targets can not be delayed with the first shot. After the shot, regardless of whether the target is hit or not, be sure to take a look at the next target before it hits the target element. Learn how to do it in a reflex, according to the muscular kinesthetic memory. In a combat situation with a mass of irritants, do not be distracted from the sides and do not react to the appearing close targets. Leave them to the submachine gunners. Work on the pre-ideomotor program for distant targets – grenade launcher, machine gunner, sniper, observer and commanders of the enemy. They are most dangerous for you and others.

As you can see, the training of professional snipers is static, monotonous and often boring. The above material obviously is incomplete. Here I presented only a part of the special psycho-physiological potential, which is practically not used now. Once, due to the brutal need for this technique, the instructors of the USSR and Hitler’s Germany rigidly rebuilt the organisms of snipe cadets. Therefore, at the front, both those, and others, and others fired quickly, far and without misses.



Secret Intelligence Service. (C-IV)

Mental and Physical – Field Skills

Often an operative / soldier becomes under fire, not understanding where the fire is from. At the moment it is more important to hide, to leave the line of fire. To do this, you must quickly rush into the nearest shelter. In order not to waste time on his search, even while driving, you should mark the way along the way and move between the shelters with short throws.

In the detailed literature and in various articles devoted to the city battle (which is not included here), one often finds recommendations when suddenly meeting with the enemy to move to the left (to the right of the enemy). In this case, there is a reference to the ‘left-hand rule’.

When you read such recommendations, you have doubts about not only the author’s experience in combat, but also in his/her theoretical training. Such advice can indeed work when meeting with an enemy armed with a pistol. But for the military clash, where the main weapon is an automatic weapon, everything is different.

Yes, the left-hand rule works, but besides it there are other factors, proving once again that mindless copying from each other is not always useful.

First, for most people, the most natural movement is (somersault) to the right.

Secondly, according to the left-hand rule the transfer of fire to the right (for the right-hander) is more difficult and unnatural than to the left. But, putting the enemy in a quandary, you put yourself in the same position. And the standing enemy has the ability to transfer weapons to the right of him/her by turning the whole body, and you, being in motion, are unlikely to be able to do this without acrobatic training.

Third, we must not forget about the inherent properties of automatic weapons. What does the enemy do when they meet you at a short distance? The most likely and dangerous of reaction is to point the gun at you and immediately open the fire with a burst. What will the machine do? After sending the first bullet in the direction of the original direction, its barrel will start to move to the right and up. Just in the direction in which some theoreticians are recommended to escape. Of course, the enemy can correct the fire during the course of your movement, but such professionals are Units. The overwhelming majority will shoot exactly as just described. Moreover, one should not forget that all this happens in a few moments.

Therefore, the first thing to do is to rush into the shelter. If there is an opportunity on the run to shoot towards the enemy – wonderful. At the same time, it is not necessary to shoot accurately, since this will slow down the movement. The machine does not lift for aiming, the fire is fired from the starting position. It is important to confuse the adversary, frighten, make you think about your safety. If the shot did not work, it’s okay. The main thing is to survive the first seconds. Actively use peripheral vision.

The same theoreticians recommend throwing grenades on the move with the enemy. You can try if they are already ready to throw. But this is doubtful. It is unlikely that anyone will be able to simultaneously seek shelter, move to it, shift the machine and obtain grenades, prepare them for a throw and throw. All movements should be simple. But they must be worked out in advance. No one in this situation will not think and remember that this was written in books. The body will think and act for him/her.

In any case, in any environment you need to immediately leave the line of fire. Even falling to the floor can save you from defeat, as fire is usually conducted at the chest level. Opening the fire without leaving aside is unacceptable, since the enemy can have the advantage in time and start shooting first. But even without this, there is always a great risk of suffering from the bullets of even a wounded opponent.

In the reverse situation, when the enemy group falls under your fire, you must immediately prioritize the defeat of goals. The first to destroy enemies, ready for immediate use of weapons (which opened it) or throwing grenades. In the second place – obvious commanders, grenade launchers, snipers, machine gunners. In the last turn, the fleeing enemies are destroyed. When you destroy a group, it is advisable to start from the rear. Then the front will not immediately realize that they are detected, and not immediately take adequate measures. In the noise of the surrounding battle, your shots may not be recognized immediately. Especially if you use a noiseless weapon. If you kill the runner in front, then the rear, seeing his fall, immediately react to this.

If a friend is injured in the movement of a group, they should be picked up by those who run alongside, dragged into the shelter and render emergency assistance, or immediately hand over to the medics, if any. If a friend was injured in an open area shot through by the enemy, when moving to a shelter, do not immediately rush to rescue him/her, otherwise you can get yourself under fire.

In order to save a wounded comrade, a smoke screen must be installed immediately. Snipers, grenade launchers and machine-gunners should try to identify sniper positions of the enemy and suppress them. The wounded one should be pulled out with the help of a rope thrown at him/her.

Snipers in the city in general are the most dangerous of enemies. When preparing for a battle, they choose (if necessary equip) for themselves several positions; both for observation and for shooting. Snipers can act alone, but more often with a partner or under the guise of several gunners. A group of snipers can also work.

The tactic of suppressing enemy sniper points with a flurry of random fire does not justify itself. After a shot from the depth of the room, the sniper changes position and usually remains invulnerable. For neutralisation it is necessary to calculate its positions and destroy when it appears. It is best to cope with this task, snipers and grenade launchers. If an enemy sniper does not operate on the territory under his control, small search groups are engaged in his search. When a sniper pair (a common practice) collides with them, it is very difficult to resist the assault team.

Actions during the dark

In the dark can not act cavalry assault. Progress is slow and cautious. You can not enter a dark room until your eyes have adapted to the dark. To accelerate addiction, this method is used. A few minutes before entering the dark room one eye closes and opens already in the dark. If there are lights, the task is simplified. Actually, without them it’s better not to enter the darkness. If there is an opportunity to light a room from a safe place outside – this should be used. For example, one soldier will cover the room (with security measures) through the dormer window and draw attention to himself. At this time, other fighters will penetrate. They themselves will be in the dark, but the bulk of the room will be lit. If you want to enter yourself, the lantern must be kept on the side of the outstretched hand.

This issue is now quite controversial. For example, certain U.S. police instructors recommend holding the flashlight in hand, crossed at the wrist with the hand holding the gun. Thus, the beam of the lantern is always directed to where the barrel of the gun is also. This is definitely good. However, it is not always possible and convenient to fire with two hands. Holding the gun with both hands somewhat restricts the movement and limits spatial freedom (the term is not official). The main disadvantage of this method of retention is; the provocation of the hiding enemy to shoot at the source of light, that is, directly by the owner of the lantern.

Statements that ‘now all the criminals are literate and know that it is necessary to shoot not by the source of light, but next’, do not stand up to criticism. After all, in such a situation, the conduct of fire, rather, will be conducted not by knowledge, but by instincts. This technique involves the use of a pistol, since automatic weapons abroad have long been equipped with special torches.

When moving in the dark, you can improvise. For example, sit down, lifting a lantern in his outstretched hand. Or put it, or throw it so that it illuminates the direction of the alleged shelter of the enemy, and most make a noiseless maneuver. In this case, you can use distractions.

The most primitive is a throw in the direction of some object. You can periodically turn on the flashlight, confusing and blinding the enemy. However, with such flares, you can lose your orientation yourself. And for such actions, the lamp should be turned on by pressing the button, and not by the slider or, even more so, by turning the head. After each flash, you need to change the position. This technique is very effective and less dangerous than moving with a constantly switched on light source. Some illuminated areas can be overcome with a jerk. When driving in the dark, you do not need to make unnecessary noise, smoke and detect your presence and location by pointless shooting. Based on the above, I can conclude about the requirements for the lantern. Naturally, it must be compact, reliable, powerful and durable. Switching it should be done both with a button (light-off only when it is held), and a tumbler of constant light. Of course, the lantern must be shockproof.

The best way is to use instruments and night vision goggles. But we must not forget that the PNV gives the radiation detected by the optics of the enemy.

The use of small arms not equipped with flame arrester or devices of noiseless and flameless shooting, also strongly unmasks the positions of shooters in dark conditions.

In the variety of settlements of the settlement and the location of the enemy under the influence of dozens of different factors, a lot of different situations arise, each of which is unique. The conduct of military operations in the village requires special preliminary training; combat, physical and tactical. However, an operative/ soldier who does not know how to think, improvise and act in difficult situations will have to be difficult even if he/she has special training. But his/her comrades will be much worse, since the interaction between fighters and units in the city is especially important.



(C-IV) Secret Intelligence Service

Operative Field Skills

When driving in a settlement, a meeting with the enemy can occur at any time. Shooting in this case will be conducted on a very short distance, and often at point-blank range. Therefore, the weapon must be ready for immediate use.

The machine must be charged, removed from the fuse and have a cartridge in the chamber. To be ready to immediately open the aiming fire, you should move, without taking off the butt of the machine from the shoulder, the trunk at the same time goes down a bit. When moving between houses, the trunk goes up, controlling the windows. Another way of keeping is to restrain the butt in the elbow fold. The trunk is directed upwards. This method also has its followers. The trunk turns in the same direction as the fighter looks at.

In the village, the sight of the machine is set at 100 m, the fuse – for firing in a single mode. Firewalls are effective only in some cases. For example, at a sudden meeting of a group of enemies at close range. In most situations it is wiser to shoot single shots. The effect is not less, and the economy of cartridges is significant.

Keeping a fire from the machine, you do not need to wait for the complete devastation of the store. If the store is partially empty and there is a pause in the battle, you can change the store. And you can finish missing cartridges. To do this, you need to carry the cartridges in bulk in a special pocket, which is securely fastened. To enable the shooter to control the flow of ammunition, starting to equip the magazine, you need to insert three tracer chucks. All of them can not be shot. Once at least one tracer flew, you need to change the store.

Even better, if there was a cartridge left in the chamber, then you do not have to waste time on juggling the shutter. However, in the heat of battle it seems doubtful that a soldier should think about such trifles as counting out the cartridges that have flown out. In any case, it is better to change the store that is not fully used, than to lose time to recharge at a critical moment.

If you throw away empty stores, there will be problems. But in a tense situation, it’s better not to lose time on their placement in a discharge vest or a pouch. Moreover, in the heat of battle, you can mix up empty and full shops. When conducting fire from a stationary position, empty stores must be discarded in one place. If there is a pause, they must be equipped and placed on yourself.

A hand-held anti-tank grenade launcher (reusable) should also be ready for immediate use. However, it is not always possible to apply it exactly in the place where the need arose. This is due to the danger that the jet is carrying when fired from behind the grenade launcher. Therefore, the grenade launcher should not only be attentive to the choice of positions, but also during the movement to constantly have an idea of ​​the possibility of immediate fire. After all, the comrades coming from behind can suffer from the shot. During the rain, a grenade is put on the grenade, not interfering with the shooting.

The grenade launcher should also be ready for quick use, that is, be charged. On the fuse it should not be set, since for a shot and so requires a lot of effort, which virtually eliminates the possibility of an accidental shot. Do not fire at a distance of more than 40 meters, because in this case the grenade may not be in time to stand on the combat platoon. It is dangerous to shoot at the windows of a high-rise building, standing at its foot, because at a miss of a grenade ricochet and fall back.

All actions must be performed in pairs (threes). Members of the couple must constantly see each other and know where are the other comrades. There is no such statistics, but many fighters perished from the bullets of their own comrades, who confused them with the enemy. However, you can not assemble in groups, putting others at risk. Do not stand still in the open. It is necessary to either move or hide. Movements occur quickly short dashes from cover to cover. In this case, one should not lose orientation in space. It is always necessary to remember from which side yours are, with what – strangers. In the conditions of dense construction and uneven progress of different groups and individual fighters, the situation changes very quickly. Therefore, if you shoot at anything that moves and suddenly appears, you can get into your own.

For a confident orientation, you need to stop often (in shelter) and look around. Movements must be planned, not chaotic.

Before you escape, you need to clearly understand the direction and goal, when it is achieved, the fighter must again take a defended position. Only in case of hitting a sudden enemy fire must immediately occupy the nearest shelter. With tight fire, and in general to reduce the risk and increase stealth, the movement can be carried out crawling or on all fours. You need to move along the walls, bushes, blockages and other objects, without running out into open spaces. To overcome dangerous space, smoke is often used. It saves from sighting fire.

Any movement must take place under mutual cover. Coverage is carried out not only when moving, but also when pauses occur for various reasons: assistance, recharging, etc. At the same time, a voice contact must be maintained. If necessary, to withdraw from an active battle, this must be reported to the partner.

When moving through an unfamiliar locality, you need to remember the road, because there is not much hope for guides.

Passing under the windows, you need to bend, and the windows located below the level of the belt, jump. Moving inside the room, you should also avoid appearing in front of windows and breaks. The enemy can hit with fire from another building or from a different external position.

It is necessary to focus on the left-hand rule. It consists in the fact that physiologically it is more convenient for a person to transfer fire to the left. This rule applies to the right-hander. For the left-hander, the opposite is true. That is, the movement of arms outward, whether it is a pistol or an automaton, is less natural and convenient. The transfer of fire and conducting aimed shooting to the right (for the right-hander) or to the left (for the left-hander) involve the need to rotate the hull. The exception is shooting from a pistol with one hand. Many things follow from this rule, and further it will be mentioned.

When choosing a firing position or when observing, it is necessary (further all for the right-hander) to look and conduct a fire to the right of the object behind which you are hiding. Thus, almost the whole body will be protected, with the exception of the right shoulder and arm, as well as the right side of the head. When shooting to the left of the obstacle, the shooter is forced to open completely. The appearance of a head over a protective object is generally unacceptable. The closer to the ground the head is, the less it will strike the enemy. Even better, if there is a mirror (preferably on a bar), with which you can observe without protruding.

However, the mirror can give highlights that unmask the position. Therefore, when using it, you need to consider where the sun is. In general, if there is a choice of direction, it is better to go from the side of the sun, so that it blinds the enemy, and not you.

If necessary, fire on the left of the defensive obstacle, it is better to shift the machine into the left hand. Although it is inconvenient and unusual, but much safer. The same applies to shooting from a pistol.

If there is any obstacle in the movement (for example, the corner of the building), it is necessary to do this on the right. In the event of a sudden encounter with the enemy and the need to immediately open fire, the weapons will immediately be directed at the enemy with the minimum openness of the fighter’s corps. To bend the angle to the left, it is also necessary to shift the machine to the left hand. To be afraid of inconvenience does not follow, because at such short distances it is difficult to miss the machine from an uncomfortable position. Or you need to send a left-hander forward.

Bypassing the corners, you need to stay away from them. Then the panorama will open gradually and unpleasant surprises will be discovered in time. Make the bending slowly. At the same time the fighter must be ready both to open fire and to quickly jump back.

In general, the movement should be slow and cautious. In addition to the frontal direction, various dormer windows, breaches and openings, which can be located both above and below, represent a danger. It is very difficult to detect the presence of an enemy in them, until he gives himself out. In addition, there is always the danger of getting into mines. In the conditions of buildings, these are basically streamers and various surprises. Anything can be delivered to the banner. Especially often doors and various valuable things are mined (for example, tape recorders, TVs). The greatest risk is represented by items, the movement of which is logical and predictable. Mines are laid in places most convenient for the firing position. Often mined piles of various objects and corpses. Since this is usually done in a hurry, the methods are chosen the simplest. Under the corpse is placed a grenade without a ring.

Displacement of the body releases the trigger lever. The calculation is made that, seeing his comrade lying without movements, the first reaction will be the desire to check whether he is injured or killed.

All suspicious objects are hooked by a cat anchor on a rope and are shifted. In this case, it is necessary to be in shelter, since the explosion can be of great power. In the absence of a rope, you can apply a long pole or board. Closed doors are undermined or the lock is being fired (another locking device). In this case, it is necessary to comply with security measures. And not only individual. We must not forget about the comrades who may be in the zone of defeat from the rebound or from the consequences of the explosion.

For prevention, it will be superfluous to even stitch the door with a few shots. For the same reason, you can not stand in front of the door yourself. With metal doors, you should be more careful, since there is a risk of bounce, especially from bullets of small caliber and low punching ability. Knocking out doors with legs is risky enough. Modern ammunition has a very large penetrating ability and allows you to hit the enemy, which is outside the walls of certain materials and other, at first glance, solid structures. Often psychologically, soldiers perceive for safe shelter easily shot items. Remember this is necessary, not only hiding from the enemy, but also striving to hit him through the shelter. Striking fire can be conducted even through a wooden floor or steps of a ladder.

Before entering the room or going around the corner, it is necessary to throw a grenade there. The grenade should be thrown with a slowdown. That is, after releasing the trigger, you need to stand for two seconds, then throw. Such actions require coolness, but you will not be thrown back. After a slowdown of three to four seconds – enough time to take countermeasures or shelter from the destruction of debris. If comrades are in the zone of defeat, some experts recommend that they be warned by shouting “Grenade!” . However, this cry warns and enemies. In addition, there is no guarantee that comrades will hear a shout or have time to respond to it in a timely manner.

Therefore, it would be more correct to throw a grenade, knowing for sure that none of them will suffer. And yet, conditional cries are also needed in the case when the grenades throw a pro-opponent. Everyone who sees it should loudly warn their people about it. At the same time it is necessary to jump into the nearest shelter or dive around the corner and open your mouth so that the blasted webs are not harmed from the blast wave.

Many instructors recommend literally throwing all suspicious places with pocket artillery. Theoretically, it should be so. But one fighter is unlikely to take more than 15-20 grenades with him. In this case, you still need to put stretch marks and leave a few pieces to continue the fight. Therefore, total grenade launcher is acceptable for short-term assault, after which there will be an opportunity to replenish the reserve.

The throwing of grenades with tear gas is not widely used in combat situations. After all, it not only does not hit the enemy, but also does not guarantee that the enemy is not capable of resistance. In addition, the enemy can have gas masks, and those who are in a state of alcoholic or narcotic intoxication are usually not affected by tear gas.

In addition, the assaulter him/herself must take individual measures for protection. It is also difficult to predict how the gas cloud will “behave”. The greatest effect of grenades with tear gas is achieved when necessary to force enemies in an enclosed space to surrender or abandon it. Noisy grenades produce a stunning effect in the explosion and are used in those cases when the enemy must be taken alive.

Immediately after the explosion, grenades must break into the room. It should be remembered that the explosion does not guarantee a complete defeat. The enemy can take refuge behind some solid object or hide in another room. Therefore, the calculation is made not only on the striking effect of the grenade, but also on stunning, stunning the enemy. Having broken into the room, it is necessary to be ready for an immediate opening of the fire. In a large room, you can open a preventive fire to the places where the enemy can hide. But indiscriminate shooting in all directions can lead to the defeat of their fighters ricocheted. Fire can be conducted without entering the room through the doorway.

Entrance to the premises is quick, without delays in the background of the opening. The movement goes diagonally to the wall.

All affected enemies must be checked. You can not move on without making sure that all the enemies have died and not having searched them. Perhaps, during the search, the necessary information will be found. For example, maps of minefields, walkie-talkies tuned to enemy frequencies, defence plans, etc.

Moving forward, you can not leave behind unchecked objects. Checked rooms can be marked with conventional signs (usually chalk) for the units going behind and for themselves, since in the passed rooms you may later have to return. Detected mines in the absence of sappers are indicated. In simple cases, the explosive device can be tried to neutralise independently with the help of a “cat” (not a real one – note), or be destroyed by blasting with another explosive device or shot from a safe distance. But it’s still risky.

When driving by a building in the absence of a loud noise background, one must listen to extraneous sounds. Accordingly, the soldiers themselves must move as quietly as possible. To introduce a possible enemy into confusion, one must actively use distracting noises. At the same time, one has to be critical about suspicious sounds. It’s not so difficult to distinguish the knocking of an abandoned stone from the crumpled glass under the feet.

Storming of the building must be prepared in such a way as to make it on the first attempt. Practice shows that an unsuccessful assault strengthens the will of the defenders and undermines the morale of the attackers. Yes, and tactically the enemy will be able to anticipate further methods and ways of attack and regroup accordingly. Therefore, after the commencement of actions, it is no longer possible to stop. Even with significant losses. Otherwise, they will then increase many times, both during the retreat, and at the second attempt.



(C-I) Secret Intelligence Service

Operative Field Skills

Contributors to frostbite in the cold are : wet tight clothes and shoes, physical exhaustion, starvation, forced prolonged immobility and uncomfortable position, weakening of the body as a result of the transferred diseases, sweating feet, chronic vascular disease of the lower extremities and the cardiovascular system, severe mechanical damage to the blood loss.

First aid is to stop cooling, warming limbs, restoring blood circulation in the affected tissues and cold prevent infection.

The first thing to do if there are signs of frostbite – to deliver to nearest warm room, remove shoes, clothes, socks, gloves. In conjunction with the first aid measures urgently need to call a doctor, an ambulance to provide medical assistance.

Total there are four degrees of depth of tissue damage :

– I degree. This is the most mild frostbite, in which affected areas of tissue does not die. The skin turns pale or becomes purple hue. The person feels a burning sensation and tingling. Then numb the affected areas. After first aid, they begin to itch and hurt. Usually people with first-degree frostbite restored no later than a week – depending on the size of frostbite.

At the easiest level can warm up the affected areas. This is done by gently rubbing, massage or breathing. Then apply gauze bandage. Warming can restore blood flow, and dressing – prevent infection in the affected areas.

– II degree. Being in the cold for a long time, a person can get frostbite II degree. In this case, similar to the more mild symptoms are often more severe consequences. After 1-2 days after freezing bubbles appear on the skin with a transparent liquid. With proper treatment, recovery occurs within two weeks. In addition to the longer period recovery of II degree and more pain.

– III degree. If a person has been in the cold for a long time and tissues receive intense cold exposure, the consequences may be irreversible. Bubbles appear on the skin, but with clear content, and with bloody fluid. All elements of the skin are dying, nails go with fingers. As a result, within three weeks the skin in the affected areas is rejected, and instead of it there are scars, and nails with deformations or do not grow at all. Scarring of the skin can last up to a month.

– IV degree. With an extremely long stay in the cold a person can get the most severe frostbite. In this case is the death of tissue. However, grade IV is terrible not only for dead skin, in severe cases there is loss of bone and joints may develop gangrene. The consequences of such frostbite are irreversible, and in such cases the damaged limbs are amputated from patients.

First aid for II-IV degree eliminates rapid warming – instead of warming should impose a heat insulating bandage, cover with foil blanket or a tablecloth, which reflects the internal heat on the principle of a thermos. The bandage can be made of gauze and cotton. Initially applied gauze then wool, and so is repeated several times. Instead, you can use scraps of woolen clothes, sweatshirts, etc. Top heat insulating bandage wrapped with rubberized cloth, scarf or woolen scarf. Next, you need to fix the frostbitten limbs. To do this, you can use any available means at hand : pieces of boards, cardboard or plywood. They are applied over the dressing and gently heat insulating fix bandages, taking care not to damage the affected areas.

Help with frostbite regardless of the degree includes hot food and drinks. Victims are also encouraged to give aspirin that will expand blood vessels and improve circulation.

One of the most common mistakes – is rubbing with snow. This can not be done in any case. Also, micro-cracks formed through the skin may become infected. Rubbing oil, grease or alcohol is also contraindicated.



The method of conducting reconnaissance is being continuously improved. However, with the new technical achievements, it is unreasonable to forget the old, time-tested and well-proven techniques and methods of reconnaissance. Some tasks can not be trusted with instruments – until now only people can perform them. One of these methods is active reconnaissance. Especially valuable is reconnaissance at the level of the regiment-battalion, when a fast, concrete and independent study of the enemy in the zone of his/her responsibility is required.






Secret Intelligence Service


Mental and Physical VII

Field Skills. (C-IV)

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