Header Image

.

中國人民共和國

.

Preamble – Mind Scan

Asymmetric Warfare

The People’s Republic of China

Secret Intelligence Service


Beijing IV

北京


Header Image

解放軍


SIS China

(C-III)

Secret Intelligence Service

Room No. 15


中國人民共和國

THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA


.

map

.

Chinese Yuan pic

copyright (c) 2015 Crown copyright

SecretIntelligenceService R15ORGHWQAA

updated 11/2016 – most recent appears last



序言 – 中國人民共和國

Preamble : The People’s Republic of China


.

Contact Unit

.

China flag

.

China : The New Global Economic Superpower – One Belt One Road

.

CHINA ABC

China. ‘Capabilities for Computer Network Operations and Cyber Espionage’

China Institute of International Studies : On-Going Projects


 中國人民共和國

ASYMMETRIC WARFARE

updated 11/2016

Danger Zone?

China has warned the USA that it will protect its sovereignty in the disputed waters of the South China Sea and rejects attempts to use ‘international laws and freedom of navigation’ as a pretext to undermine its national security interests.

In a meeting with US President Barack Obama at the fourth Nuclear Security Summit in Washington DC,  Xi Jinping stated categorically that while he believes in the peaceful resolution of conflicts through direct talks, China will take all steps necessary to protect both its national interests and sovereignty.

“China will firmly safeguard the sovereignty and related rights in the South China Sea,” Xi Jinping

While acknowledging that Beijing “respects and safeguards the freedom of navigation and overflight other countries are entitled to under international law,” Xi stressed that China will “not accept any freedom of navigation as an excuse to undermine China’s sovereignty and national security interests.”

The US has been taking steps to counter China’s growing influence in the region and has increased its regular naval patrols in the South China Sea as part of “freedom of navigation” drills near the disputed islands chain.

Washington has also increased air surveillance in addition to stepping up US-led war games with its Asian allies. In response China deployed its surface-to-air missile systems on Woody Island earlier this year, in addition to military aircraft.

Woody Island is the biggest island in the Paracel chain in the South China Sea. China laid claim to the island in the 1950s, but the rights to the area, which is at the heart of economically important shipping routes in the South China Sea, are being contested by Taiwan, Philippines, Brunei, Malaysia and Vietnam.

In addition to perceived US intrusion into the South China Sea affair, China is apprehensive about the installation of an advanced anti-missile Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) system on the Korean peninsula.

According to Chinese Vice Foreign Minister Zheng Zeguang, during the meeting Xi told Obama that China was “firmly opposed” to the US’ deployment of THAAD.

02/2016, the United States and South Korea agreed to start talks about deploying the THAAD system to counter the threat from North Korea which recently boasted about its growing nuclear capabilities. North Korea’s nuclear test on January 6 and a satellite launch on 07/2016 were violations of existing UN sanctions.

While no official decision has been made to place THAAD in South Korea, China has repeatedly over the past few months continued to stress that the US’ deployment of an anti-ballistic missile complex, designed to destroy short to intermediate-range ballistic missiles, could jeopardize its national security.

“Installing the THAAD system has extended far beyond the defense need against North Korea, and will cause direct harm to China’s strategic and security interests, as well as the regional balance,” said Hong Lei, the ministry’s spokesman.

Russia has also warned against THAAD’s deployment on the Korean Peninsula. In late March Russian Ambassador to China Andrey Denisov stated that THAAD “creates considerable challenges to the security of other countries, including Russia…[which] cannot be considered other than the creation of a certain threat to China and Russia.”

The two leaders also released joint statements vowing to improve nuclear security, implement a global climate change deal, and fight cyber security threats.


Xi
 中國領導人發言的黃金

The Chinese leader has spoken of a golden Yuan

.

AW one



.

The first Congress of Chinese Gold, which was sponsored by the Chinese government and five major gold companies, including (state) China National Gold was a public event presentation (with over 600 participants). To say the Chinese are very optimistic about gold, and they are buying up third world supplies with great veracity is understatement. All five Chinese manufacturers [gold] echo the words that they are concerned about security of supplies. They are all at the international level hunting for explored fields. Even the president of China National Gold said that the yuan, which has appeared on the international stage, will literally have gold plating. It was also announced that the Chinese are planning to build another store of gold, with a capacity of about 2000+ tons. China has bought 3000+ tons in the past four years. It will be located next to Hong Kong island, at the Chinese city of Shenzhen. It will bring the number of gold storage facilities in China to four. This is necessary because China – an obvious major player in the market for physical gold, and their role in it over time will only increase exponentially. They will sell gold at the international level, and they intend to establish a price for physical gold. The importance of this,  is that originally they were going to present about 11 contracts nominating RMB. Thus, the price and all transactions will be carried out on gold in yuan instead of the dollar. All the big organizations are here – HSBC, Goldman, ANZ, and so on. Plus, you can see more of evidence of the enormous appetite for physical gold, which the Chinese population are experiencing. Put together, the plethora of new stores and the opening of the Shanghai Gold Exchange to international investors, more than suggests that the Chinese are preparing the ground for the complete domination of the future gold market and, at concurrently, they will continue to buy up all available on the world market flow of the metal. At the Congress was discussion of the gold backing of the Chinese currency.


The Asymmetric Warfare articles are listed in the Section : ARTICLES


AW two

Does this suggest that Western sanctions only pushed Russia and China to a closer   union as Russia is now turning to the East for financing? The Russians are major buyers of gold. Russia has increased reserves from 600 tonnes to more than 1100 tons. What does this mean for the dollar in terms of its sustainability. The Chinese, Russians and other countries are buying the currencies of other countries but not the United States dollar. In fact, this intended move away from the dollar, could be one of the catalysts for the growth of gold. It seems that we are in the center of the currency war, where each country, including the Japanese and the Chinese, are trying to weaken its currency. These currency battles provide a very favorable environment for the growth of gold prices. Because, if we take the value – risk / reward, then the lower bound – the gold, and the top – is in the heavens. It has to be said that the suppression of gold prices at all costs is vitally important to the interests of British-American banks. The threat of the use of military force and attempts to draw Russia and China into a military conflict – is all bound with the question – who manages the financial world? Russia and China continue to accumulate eternal currency – gold. The American hegemony and that of the EU continues to base on the pile up of debt. Changes are occurring. The spirit of revolution is in the air. Their world of paper money is beginning to shake. It constitutes a shock to the system, a system that holds deflation, unemployment and social instability. However, it (US and UK) will not go without violent struggle, if at all.



The debt problems of the United States

As YugraPRO reported back in 2014, the fiscal year ended in the United States, and United States government debt as of September 29, grew by 1,043 trillion reached 17.738 trillion. United States on the brink of a technical default, and this objective can reduce the rate of the American currency.

On the other hand, if the conditions of external constraints in the calculations, the country will have to pay in gold (in terms of sanctions and embargoes), its value starts to decline quite rapidly. As a result, this will lead to the fact that in most cases the cost of gold sales will be provided below the cost of purchase, ie the direct losses.

Recall that in previous historical periods States hoarded gold on the eve of the great wars.

For reference. In the first place by the number of gold reserves as of July 2014 USA (8,133.5 m.) On the second Germany (3,384.2 m.), The third of the IMF (2,814.0 m.) – Russia on the list for the sixth month



Article.   Asymmetric Warfare: The Worst Possible Scenario   (read)



Article: China has long been courting the Saudi Monarchy. The Saudis will announce their decision to trade petrodollars for yuan during the coming weeks or months, kneeling in front of the Chinese and taking off their hat to the Russian Federation, as it were. The price of oil will be temporarily determined by a Russian-Chinese tandem and quotas on RMB. From that moment on will be established as the gold standard in world trade, and the flight of American debt will become an unmanageable flow. The banking system will follow the trade, bringing prosperity to the East and the devastation of the West. The collapse will be heard everywhere, it is already running. The dollar will be rejected and replaced by the gold trade standard. How accurate the assessment?   (read)

.

30/09/14, 2014 13.00 GMT
Saudi Arabia buys Chinese ballistic missiles

Saudi Arabia has bought from China a number of mobile systems for ballistic missileDF-21 medium-range missiles. On this, as stated by adviser to the united Security Council of Saudi Arabia, Major General (Retired) Anwar Eshki. According to him, these complexes  have already been received into the country and completed their integration into the system of defense.

According to Eshki, the Ministry of Defence of Saudi Arabia, the Chinese missiles were needed to ensure the safety of the allies in the Persian Gulf, as well as for defense against possible attack from the cities of Mecca and Medina. In this case, the Saudi military claimed that ballistic missiles DF-21 are not the weapons of attack.

.

China Centre for Strategic and International Studies

.

Chinese Academy of Sciences

chinese-academy-of-sciences.

.

.

.

powerchina.

.

.

.

Chinese Academy of Social Sciences

.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs. PRC

.

解放軍 The Peoples Liberation Army. Hong Kong garrison

Hong K one

(see pictorial)



It is both interesting and important to note how the Chinese talk not only about the economic, but also about military policy. China  has increased its defense budget. Chinese state television offered a rare candid interview with a prominent Chinese general, quote; “Double-digit growth in defense spending – by ear, maybe it’s a lot, but in the development of the military complex, we still are far behind.” “Our companies have seized the global market. And we have something very significant and many to protect. ” ” China has always been peaceful and remains so to this day “- fragments of the conversation were first shown in the Chinese news, then subsequently in its entirety – soon to be broadcast abroad in English. For China, apparently, it is important to explain to other countries, why is it so desires to increase the power of the defense industry. In 2014, the military budget increased by 12.2% – up to 800 billion yuan – which is more than $ 130 billion. China is building aircraft carriers and submarines. Commissioned submarine type “Jin”. According to US Naval Intelligence, its missiles can reach Alaska, if they run out from the Peoples Republic; of China itself. Or  the province of Inner Mongolia, of the five participants of China – the largest contingent. By what kind of war, and with whom is China preparing?

pla poster

解放軍 – The People’s Liberation Army (PLA) “Attack the enemy until the last breath.”  PLA Poster 1971

China has a long coastline. Most of the trade is on the sea route, so for their own navy – this is normal. “It seems to me unfair to consider the growing interest of China to maritime space in such a plane. We need to protect our maritime interests.. We need to build a powerful navy to protect our rights to the sea. Our duty – it’s cooperation with countries around the world in order to ensure the availability and security in general oceans, “- said General Sun Sytszin.” Learning from the art of war, Sun Tzu, “Commissioner for Policy, Academy of Military Sciences of China . General Sun Sytszin devoted his life to the study of the history of the famous treatise on war. Its chief, seemingly paradoxical thesis – “to avoid war, it is necessary to prepare.” So, philosophically, China, explains the meaning of its military policy. The treatise referred to, was written 2500 years ago. 13 chapters of “Art of War” for many centuries became the Bible for commanders not only in China, but also around the world, not only for the military, but also politicians, businessmen and even athletes. The growth of spending on defense irritates many, especially the United States. China is fast gaining momentum in the western Pacific Ocean, where Washington has always had a strong influence. “Modernization of the Chinese army is aimed at protecting the state of China and its territorial integrity.” States President Xi Jinping, no inch of land that our ancestors gave us should be captured. Some Western countries are constantly trying to gather in the so-called alliances to challenge us. The Taiwan issue, the situation around the Diaoyu Islands in the South China Sea – all threaten the integrity of China. And what would you do, keep quiet? “- Said Sun Sytszin.

Japan – for the first time since 1945, dramatically increases in defense spending. In June, at a summit in Singapore, Prime Minister Abe wants to revise its pacifist constitution to restrain the expansion of China. “I doubt that its authorities issued at least some lessons from the events of the past. Their parochial arguments deny even the idea of the emergence of any strong opponent of the neighboring countries. They are still nostalgic for the days of a double-inflicted defeat to China. Now the Japanese government again obsessively demonstrate militarist ideas, so even trying to change the Constitution. This is a very dangerous sign, “- said Sun Sytszin. In this picture of a world war, Russia to China is not a strong contender, but an ally.



Re: Hong Kong

02/10/14 13.00 GMT   China’s foreign minister has asserted that Beijing will not allow other countries to meddle into its ‘internal affairs’, – responding in this way to US Secretary of State’s call for Beijing to grant Hong Kong the “highest possible degree of autonomy.”
The American and the Chinese heads of foreign offices exchanged their views on the massive protests now taking place in Hong Kong before their talks at the US State Department on Wednesday.

“Hong Kong affairs are China’s internal affairs,” Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi said. “All countries should and will respect China’s sovereignty. And this is also a basic principle governing international relations. I believe for any country, for any society, no one will allow those illegal acts that violate public order.” Wang Yi

.

map3

.

02/10/14 14.00 GMT   ASYMMETRIC WARFARE – Petrodollar attack

rubles

The attack has begun. Russian oil sold for rubles! Further, it should follow the establishment of stock exchanges, which will set the price of oil in rubles. Is is a big step towards the collapse of the petrodollar? This is its intention.

“Gazprom Neft” has started to conduct the first transaction in Europe; Payment being made in rubles. Two transactions have been completed. Since the phase of testing was successful. Most likely Russia will enter Ruble pay for other suppliers.

Novaport project has already begun to deliver for rubles. Delivery to the Asian market will now be made in RMB. Almost all of the clients of “Gazprom” purchasing petroleum products, have signed an agreement to pay in rubles. Some were allowed to make payments in euros. According to the head of “Gazprom” Alexander Dyukova, “they [clients] see a potentially large quantity of crude oil and petroleum products. They need to translate into rubles at the lowest risk and the easiest way. “Djukov bluntly said that Russia should set up their own agency and stock exchange price that would be set referred to oil prices in rubles. This feature will help facilitate global access to the ruble, which in turn will increase the amount of oil sold for rubles and yuan.

Recently, Gazprom Neft sent to Europe the second oil tanker for payment in rubles. Oil was produced on Novoportovskoye field on the Yamal Peninsula. Party in the volume of 27.2 thousand. Tons of crude oil was delivered to the North-Western Europe on 17 September. A new grade of oil is called Novy Port and its quality characteristics, including low sulfur content exceeds benchmarks varieties Brent. Now the company is preparing to send a third tanker. It can be concluded that the oil for rubles – this is a fait accompli. Soon to follow for Gazprom and other companies that also will make large sales in rubles and yuan for probably maybe beyond the energy sector. Ruble significantly growing stronger.



China ornament III


中國人民共和國

注:重要的問題。報告30/08/2015。俄羅斯和中國上演了歷史上最大的海上聯合演習。
“海上聯合2015年二,” – 軍事合作的一個非凡的顯示


China’s military, technological and economic power and African national interests

China is developing by leaps and bounds in cooperation with African countries. Because the possibility of the Chinese logistics and rules of cooperation advocated by China, the African continent is more suitable than that offered by other countries. Most of all, Africa needs to build infrastructure and laying the infrastructure – the forte of China. Africa also need partners who will treat her as an equal. China is suitable for this item.

August 25, China welcomed  Zimbabwe’s President Robert Gabriel Mugabe, who arrived in China, was given a salute of twenty-one salvo. Mugabe a possible future Chairman of the African Union, uniting 54 states. In great favor is not only Mugabe, but the Sudanese leader Omar al-Bashir.

In favor of the West has got not only Mugabe, but the Sudanese leader Omar al-Bashir. Hague court even issued a warrant for his arrest. Arrogant actions of the Western countries led to the fact that Africa barely blows representatives of the Western world. Historically, that Europe belonged to the peoples of the continent with contempt, and now it seems like she still did not ashamed of it. West considers its responsibility to help African countries alms and leverage. Attitude of Western countries to Africans, as we have seen, did not change over time.

Cooperation on all fronts between China and African countries stems from the fact that Africa responds directly to China’s national interests. Competition with the West has never been to China a major factor during the determination of our African or any policy.



CLONING: Obtaining (copying) R&D of others (enemies/competitors) via all means and reproducing original products of their ingenuity for a minute fraction of original cost. Simply stated, because the actual process of acquiring knowledge requires complex (software and other) skills and the immense application of mind to frontier science and technology projects. At the end of the day copycat tactics with regard to military hardware such as that incorporating the latest stealth technology and nuclear weapons – ICBMs (as well as literally everything else) is asymmetric strategy at its most determined.

Ref: Clone of the Russian Topol ICBM and US Stealth $40 billion fighter project

.


在解放軍

CHINA’S TEST – HYPERSONIC AIRCRAFT


2014 – 2015 The Chinese military conducted another successful test of the hypersonic shock aircraft capable of breaking through the US missile defense system and cause a nuclear attack.

A secret trial ; a landfill in western China was launched a ballistic missile, equipped with  hypersonic warheads WU-14. It was the fourth in the last 18 months of testing.

Hypersonic aircraft can carry both conventional warheads or a nuclear warhead. Its speed after separation from the launch vehicle is approximately 12.3 thousand kilometers per hour.

According to “”informed sources” unlike the previous test the unit showed a high degree of maneuverability, which indicates that it is intended to break the missile defense system.

The Pentagon’s ability to shoot down such maneuvering hypersonic aircraft with standing service systems, has no official verdict.

Meanwhile, the Commission on China of the US Congress, in its report in November 2014, noted that “hypersonic planning aids can make a US missile defense system much less efficient and potentially obsolete.”

“In view of the four tests carried out over the past year and a half, China could finalize the first version of the device and put it into service within a year or two,” – Center for International Assessments and Strategies.

The first test of a Chinese hypersonic aircraft WU-14, which was officially confirmed at the Pentagon, on 9 January 2014 the second and third – August 7 and 2 December.

According to reports, it is removed from the hypersonic ballistic missiles at an altitude of about 100 km and flies to the target at a speed of 10 x higher than the speed of sound. The vast superiority of this system is that it can apply precise strikes at hypersonic speed at a relatively low altitude and on a flat trajectory, which makes it much less vulnerable, if not totally invulnerable to missile defense.

Currently, high-tech strategic weapons – hypersonic are being developed by the United States, Russia, China and India.

PRC B.


解放軍

THE PEOPLE’S LIBERATION ARMY


The People’s Liberation Army has developed an incredibly complex system of ‘anti-access systems’ that rely on air, sea, and land assets in order to deny U.S. forces control of China’s littoral. This system of systems only functions properly if the organizations responsible for it can work together. Arguably, as of yet, there’s not much indication that the land forces of the PLA, the Second Artillery, the PLAAF, and the PLAN have engaged in the work necessary to make them function as a coherent whole. The Chinese military in the Sino-Vietnam war did not do well on this score; land forces could rarely rely on air or naval support, with predictable results. The stakes are even higher now, and there seems to be some indication that Chinese military leaders understand that the different components of the PLA need goading in order to support a shared vision of warfare.
During the coming decade, we should expect China to shed much of its remaining dependence. Russia itself seems to understand that it can no longer remain ahead of China on the technological frontier, and thus that it can relax its concerns about technology transfer. Chinese engines are improving vastly, and the electronic components that it equips into its weapons increasingly come from China’s very dynamic tech sector (abetted by intellectual property ‘stolen’ from the West), rather than from Russia. The relationship between the Russian and Chinese military-industrial complexes has been long and deeply complicated, punctuated with several political and technological revolutions, but the next decade should see the final emergence of the Chinese military-industrial complex from the Russian shadow, along with the end of Chinese dependence on Russian supply and technology.
China as Export Hub
China’s biggest problem with respect to the military balance with the United States may be its almost complete absence of allies. Only Pakistan (which also has a troubled alliance relationship with the United States) and North Korea (which has its own litany of problems) rely on China for defense, and for military technology.
The next decade will almost certainly not see the development of a China-centric alliance system; indeed, the opposite (a China-phobic alliance) is far more likely. However, in the next ten years we probably should expect that China will break into the top tiers of the arms export business, possibly displacing Russia in a number of key technological areas. Chinese land vehicles, small naval vessels, fighters, and submarines have enjoyed considerable recent success in the international arms export market. The sale of these weapons does not necessarily win China close friends–Beijing has no interest in the sort of “generosity” that Moscow displayed in arms transfers during the 1960s and 1970s–but it almost certainly means the development of long-term political and economic connection between the PLA and military organizations around the world. The possible sales of submarines to Thailand or JF-17 fighters to Argentina brings with it the long-term need for Chinese maintenance, training, advising, and upgrade possibilities. Like the United States, Russia, and France, China can leverage those relationships for political, as well as economic, benefit.
This epochal turnaround was palpable in the Russian pavilion at November’s Airshow China in the southern city of Zhuhai. Russia used to be the star of this show, wowing visitors with its “Russian Knights” aerobatic team, showing off fighters, helicopters and cargo planes, and sealing multi-billion dollar deals on the sidelines.

China laid on its biggest commercial display of military technology—almost all based on Russian know-how.
The star guests were the “Sherdils,” a Pakistani aerobatic team flying fighter jets that are Russian in origin but are now being produced by Pakistan and China.
Milestones
• 1950s — Soviet Union allows China to copy various low-tech weapons
• 1956 — Ideological dispute leads to cutoff of Soviet military assistance
• 1992 — China becomes first country outside former Soviet Union to buy Su-27 fighter jet
• 1994 — China buys four Kilo class diesel submarines from Russia
• 1996 — China buys license to assemble Su-27
• 1997 — China buys two Sovremenny-class destroyers from Russia
• 2002 — China buys eight more submarines and two more destroyers from Russia
• 2007 — China unveils J-11B, which Russians say is a copy of Su-27
“We used to be the senior partner in this relationship—now we’re the junior one,” said Ruslan Pukhov, of the Russian Defense Ministry’s Public Advisory Council, a civilian advisory body to the military.
Russia’s predicament mirrors that of many foreign companies as China starts to compete in global markets with the most advanced trains, power-generating equipment and other civilian products based on technology obtained from the West.
In this case, there is an additional security dimension, however: China is developing weapons systems, including aircraft carriers and carrier-based fighters, that could threaten Taiwan and test U.S. control of the Western Pacific.
Chinese exports of fighters and other advanced weapons also threaten to alter the military balance in South Asia, Sudan and Iran.
China’s considerable military muscle marginally lags behind that of the U.S. the world’s largest weapons manufacturer and exporter. China accounted for 2% of global arms transfers between 2005-2009, putting it in ninth place among exporters, according to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI). This is changing by the day.
But no other Asian country has sought to project military power—and had the indigenous capability to do so—since Japan’s defeat in 1945.
China’s extremely rapid mastery of Russian technology raises questions about U.S. cooperation with the civilian faces of Chinese arms makers.
The Aviation Industry Corp. (AVIC), China’s state aerospace company, builds fighters, for instance. But it is also making a new passenger jet with help from General Electric Co. and other U.S. aerospace companies. A GE official says the company has partnered with foreign engine manufacturers for decades “with elaborate protections built in place” that have preserved the company’s intellectual property.
There are also implications for U.S. weapons programs. Last year the Pentagon decided to cut funding for the F-22—currently the most advanced fighter deployed in the world—partly on the grounds that China wouldn’t have many similar aircraft for at least 15 years.
But then Gen. He Weirong, deputy head of China’s Air Force, announced that Chinese versions of such jets were about to undergo test flights, and would be deployed in “eight or 10 years.”
The Defense Intelligence Agency now says it will take China “about 10 years” to deploy stealth fighters in “meaningful numbers.”
For Moscow and Beijing, meanwhile, a dispute over the intellectual-property rights to such weaponry is testing their efforts to overcome a long historical rivalry and build a new era of friendly ties.
“We didn’t pay enough attention to our intellectual property in the past,” said a Russian defense official. “Now China is even competing with us on the international market.”
J-11B Specs
• ENGINE — Originally fitted with Russian AL31F engine, now being fitted with Chinese WS-10A
• RANGE — 3,200 miles (with one aerial re-fueling)
• SPEED — Mach 2.35 (1,600 mph)
• RADAR — Indigenous radar capable of tracking 6-8 targets, and engaging 4, simultaneously
• WEAPONS — PL-8 and PL-12 air-to-air missiles, LT-2 laser-guided bomb, LS-6 precision-guided glide bomb, 30mm cannon.
• ESTIMATED NUMBER IN CHINESE AIR FORCE — 50
Few things illustrate this more clearly than the J-11B, a Chinese fighter that Russian officials allege is a direct copy of the Su-27, a one-seat fighter that was developed by the Soviets through the 1970s and 1980s as a match for the U.S. F-15 and F-16.
Before the early 1990s, Moscow hadn’t provided major arms to Beijing since an ideological split in 1956, which led to a brief border clash in 1969.
But after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Kremlin was desperate for hard currency. In 1992, China became the first country outside the former Soviet Union to buy the Su-27, paying $1 billion for 24.
The deal was a coup for China, which had shifted its military focus away from a potential Soviet land invasion, and now wanted to defend territorial claims over Taiwan and parts of the South China Sea and East China Sea.
Efforts to upgrade its air and naval forces had been hampered by U.S. and European Union arms embargoes imposed after the 1989 crackdown on protesters around Tiananmen Square

.
China’s military modernization program grew more urgent after its leaders were stunned by the display of U.S. firepower during the first Gulf War, Western military officials say.
Beijing’s breakthrough came in 1996, when it paid Russia $2.5 billion for a license to assemble another 200 Su-27s at the Shenyang Aircraft Company.
The agreement stipulated that the aircraft—to be called the J-11—would include imported Russian avionics, radars and engines and couldn’t be exported.
But after building 105, China abruptly canceled the contract in 2004, claiming the aircraft no longer met its requirements, according to Russian officials and defense experts.
Three years later, Russia’s fears were confirmed when China unveiled its own version of the fighter jet—the J-11B—on state television.
“When the license was sold, everyone knew they would do this. It was just a risk that was taken,” said Vassily Kashin, a Russian expert on the Chinese military. “At that time it was a question of survival.”
The J-11B looked almost identical to the Su-27, but China said it was 90% indigenous and included more advanced Chinese avionics and radars. Only the engine was still Russian, China said.
Now it is being fitted with a Chinese engine as well, according to Zhang Xinguo, deputy president of AVIC, which includes Shenyang Aircraft.
“You cannot say it’s just a copy,” he said. “Mobile phones all look similar. But technology is developing very quickly. Even if it looks the same, everything inside cannot be the same.”
The J-11B presented Russia with a stark choice—to continue selling China weapons, and risk having them cloned, too, or to stop, and miss out on its still lucrative market.
Russia’s initial response was to suspend talks on selling China the Su-33, a fighter with folding wings that can be used on aircraft carriers.
Since then, however, it has re-opened negotiations on the Su-33, although it rejected China’s offer to buy just two, and insisted on a larger order.
Sukhoi Aviation Holding Co.’s official position now is that it remains confident about its business in China.
Indeed, many aviation experts believe AVIC is having problems developing an indigenous engine for the J-11B with the same thrust and durability as the original Russian ones.
Sukhoi is betting that China will have to buy the Su-33 on Russian terms as Beijing will struggle to develop its own carrier-based fighter in time for the planned launch of its first carriers in 2011 or 2012.
The company also hopes to sell China the Su-35—a more advanced version of the Su-27—if the J-11B doesn’t perform well enough.
“We’re just hoping our aircraft will be better,” said Sergey Sergeev, deputy director general of Sukhoi. “It’s one thing to make a good quality copy of a spoon, but quite another to make one of an aircraft.”
The Russian and Chinese governments both declined to comment.
In private, however, Russian officials say they worry that China is about to start mass producing and exporting advanced fighters—without Russian help. China bought $16 billion worth of Russian arms between 2001 and 2008—40% of Russia’s sales.
Photographs published recently on Chinese military websites appear to show engines fitted on the J-11B and a modified version—called the J-15—for use on aircraft carriers.
That has compounded Russian fears that China has reverse engineered an Su-33 prototype it acquired in 2001 from Ukraine, according to Russian defense experts.
At last year’s Dubai Air Show, China demonstrated its L-15 trainer jet for the first time. In June, China made its debut at the Eurosatory arms fair in France.
In July, China demonstrated the JF-17—the fighter developed with Pakistan—for the first time overseas at the Farnborough Airshow in Britain.
China also had one of the biggest pavilions at an arms fair in Capetown in September.
“They’re showing up at arms fairs they’ve never been to before,” said Siemon T. Wezeman, an arms trade expert at SIPRI. “Whereas 15 years ago they had nothing really, now they’re offering reasonable technology at a reasonable price.”
China is generating particular interest among developing countries, especially with the relatively cheap JF-17 fighter with a Russian engine

.
The Kremlin has approved the re-export of the engine to Pakistan, as it has no arms business there.
But it was enraged last year when Azerbaijan, an ex-Soviet republic, began talks on buying JF-17s, according to people familiar with the situation.
Also last year, China’s JF-17s and Russia’s MiG-29s competed in a tender from Myanmar, which eventually chose the Russians, but paid less than they wanted.
This year, both entered a tender from Egypt, with China offering the JF-17 for $10 million less than Russia’s $30 million MiG-29.
That prompted Mikhail Pogosyan, who heads Sukhoi and the company that makes MiGs, to suggest that the Kremlin stop selling China the Russian engines for the JF-17.
The Kremlin hasn’t done that yet, but Russian officials have suggested privately taking legal action if China exports more advanced jets like the J-11B.
Last month, Russia’s government proposed new legislation attaching an intellectual property rights clause to foreign military sales agreements.
The issue was raised during a visit by President Dmitry Medvedev to China in October, according to people familiar with the situation.
“Of course we’re concerned, but we also recognize there’s very little we can do,” said Mr. Pukhov, of the Russian Defense Ministry’s Public Advisory Council.
Asked what advice he would give Western aerospace firms, Sukhoi’s Mr. Sergeev said: “They should keep in mind what products they’re selling—whether they’re civilian or dual use. And most important is to prepare very carefully your contract documents.”
While Russia worries about intellectual property, other countries are concerned about security. The arms programs China initiated two or three decades ago are starting to bear fruit, with serious implications for the regional—and global—military balance.
The J-11B is expected to be used by the Chinese navy as its frontline fighter, capable of sustained combat over the entire East China Sea and South China Sea.
Aircraft carriers and J-15 fighters would further enhance its ability to stop the U.S. intervening in a conflict over Taiwan, and test its control of the Western Pacific.
China’s arms exports could have repercussions on regions in conflict around the world. Pakistan inducted its first squadron of Chinese-made fighter jets in February, potentially altering the military balance with India.
Other potential buyers of China’s JF-17 fighter jet include Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Venezuela, Nigeria, Morocco and Turkey. In the past, China has also sold fighters to Sudan.
The potential customer of greatest concern to the U.S. is Iran, which purchased about $260 million of weapons from China between 2002-2009, according to Russia’s Centre for Analysis of the Global Arms Trade.
In June, China backed U.N. sanctions on Iran, including an expanded arms embargo, but Tehran continues to seek Chinese fighters and other weaponry.


china military parade


解放軍

THE PEOPLE’S LIBERATION ARMY


A cyber espionage operation by China seven years ago produced sensitive technology and aircraft secrets that were incorporated into the latest version of China’s new J-20 stealth fighter jet, according to U.S. officials and private defense analysts.
The Chinese cyber spying against the Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II took place in 2007 under what U.S. intelligence agencies code named Operation Byzantine Hades, a large-scale, multi-year cyber program that targeted governments and industry.
Defense officials said the stolen data was obtained by a Chinese military unit called a Technical Reconnaissance Bureau in the Chengdu province. The data was then passed to the state-run Aviation Industry Corp. of China (AVIC).


An AVIC subsidiary, the Chengdu Aircraft Industry Group, used the stolen data in building the J-20, said defense and intelligence officials familiar with reports of the illicit tech transfer.
Pentagon technology security officials in 2011 opposed a joint venture between General Electric and AVIC over concerns that U.S. fighter jet technology would be diverted to AVIC’s military aircraft programs. The Obama administration ignored the concerns and instead has since promoted the systematic loosening of technology controls on transfers to China.
The Office of Director of National Intelligence is known to have details of AVIC’s past involvement in illicit arms transfers and its role in obtaining sensitive F-35 technology through cyber espionage, the officials said.
The F-35 data theft was confirmed after recent photographs were published on Chinese websites showing a newer version of the J-20. The new version of the radar-evading aircraft had incorporated several design upgrades since the first demonstrator aircraft was revealed in 2011.
According to the officials, the J-20 has progressed from prototype to demonstrator. One of its most significant weapons enhancements is a new electro-optical targeting system under its nose.
Additionally, protruding engine nozzles seen in the earlier version have been hidden, an attempt to further reduce the jet’s radar signature. The newest J-20 also appeared with a different radar-absorbing coating.
Photos of the newer J-20 were first posted online on Chinese military forums on Jan. 17.
The Pentagon’s Defense Science Board revealed earlier this year that system design information on the F-35 was obtained from cyber attacks.
The new Terminal High Altitude Area Defense missile systems and Patriot Advanced Capability-3 (PAC-3) missile defenses, along with many other systems, were compromised through cyber espionage, the board said in a report.
Most details of the Chinese cyber espionage campaign to obtain F-35 technology remain secret.
However, the Chinese probably obtained the F-35 secrets from Lockheed Martin, its subcontractors, or U.S. allies involved in the development program. Allies that took part in the F-35 program include the United Kingdom, Israel, Italy, Australia, Canada, Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Turkey.
A Chinese Academy of Military Sciences official, Du Wenlong, told Chinese state television on Feb. 20 that the new J-20’s shortened exhaust nozzles, along with tail and vertical fin modifications, are designed to reduce radar detection.
Du also said that a “revolutionary” breakthrough allowed the twin engines to increase both power and reliability.
China’s inability to manufacture quality jet engines has been a weakness of its aircraft manufacturing programs.
Du also said that the electro-optical targeting system provides better surveillance and strike capabilities against both land and sea targets.
The J-20 also has a larger weapons bay than the U.S. F-22, which allows it to carry more powerful missiles that can be used against “aircraft carrier and foreign AEGIS ships,” Du said.
U.S. officials said the new J-20 had undergone ground tests, but it had not been flight tested as of early March.
Richard Fisher, a specialist on Chinese weapon systems, said the new J-20 was flight tested on March 1 and demonstrated the enhanced fifth generation jet fighter features.
Fisher, with the International Assessment and Strategy Center, said it is “very curious” that the new J-20 featured its new electronic targeting system under its nose. That location increased its field of view and is similar to the targeting system on the F-35.
“This targeting system and a set of distributed high-power infrared sensors give the F-35 a previously unrivaled ‘situational awareness,’ but the now it is clear that the J-20 will have a similar targeting system and its own set of distributed sensors,” Fisher said.
“If as part of their espionage, China had also gained engineering insights into the F-35′s very advanced sensor systems, that could prove disastrous to its combat potential barring a rapid redesign and improvements before entering service,” Fisher added.
Advanced sensors on the F-35 were intended as insurance for the jet not having the best capabilities for maneuvering in flight, he said.
“But if the Chinese, via cyberespionage, have gained insights into its sensor system, then it is to be expected that China is also working on ways to jam or otherwise degrade its advantage,” Fisher said.
The J-20 targeting system indicates that the Chinese plan to use the jet for ground attack and air superiority missions like the F-35, he said, adding that it now appears the J-20 will be comparable to the more capable F-22.
“We can be assured that J-20 production will significantly exceed that of the 187 F-22 fighters cut off by the Obama Administration in 2010,” he said.
China’s Communist Party-affiliated Global Times reported Jan. 20 that China obtained key technologies from the F-35 and incorporated them into the J-20
The newspaper did not admit stealing the technology, but stated that China “completely obtained the six key technologies” from the F-35.
Those features include the electro-optical targeting system and a diverterless supersonic inlet, a thrust-vectoring jet nozzle, and a fire-control array radar system.


Chinese soldiers during the visit of Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta in Beijing, China, 18 September 2012


解放軍

THE PEOPLE’S LIBERATION ARMY


The DF-21D anti-ship ballistic missile (ASBM) has generated a tremendous amount of interest over the past five years. If it works, it poses a very serious threat to U.S. Navy (USN) carriers, as well as to the other advanced warships of the USN, of the Japanese Maritime Self Defense Force, and others.
An anti-ship ballistic missile is more than just a missile; it requires a broad, sophisticated support system. Unlike a missile launched at static targets, a carrier-killing ASBM requires terminal guidance, as it must revise its flight path after reentering the atmosphere. From launch to strike, the flight of an ASBM can take fifteen or so minutes, at which time the carrier in question will have more than likely moved its position on the open ocean. The missile thus needs to be adjusted remotely or needs to have the capacity to identify the carrier on its own. Both of these processes depend on the operation of a sophisticated set of sensors, as well as a communication system capable of integrating these sensors and transmitting information to shooters. As Andrew Erickson emphasizes, “the successful achievement of high-quality, real-time satellite imagery and target-locating data and fusion as well as reliable indigenous satellite navigation and positioning would facilitate holding enemy vessels at risk via devastating multi-axis strikes .”
The USN is very concerned about the DF-21D, which is one reason it’s working so hard on ship-borne anti-ballistic missile (ABM) technology. The USN is also working on other countermeasures, including strikes on DF-21 launch sites at the onset of war (potentially delivered from nuclear cruise missile submarines (SSGNs), and electronic warfare.
This is why it’s so important to emphasize the importance of the ancillary ISR and communication system that make the DF-21D possible. The US doesn’t need to destroy ever launcher, or shoot down every missile in flight. Both of those represent important capabilities, but the key task is to disrupt the system that supports the missile, making it hard for China to identify, target, and strike US carrier groups.
No one knows what would happen if the Second Artillery launched a salvo of DF-21Ds at a US carrier battle group. Some percentage (depending on reliability) would invariably go astray without US help. US escorts would shoot down some percentage with ship-board ABM systems. Electronic disruption would cause some to plunge harmlessly into the ocean. And finally, some might hit a carrier, or hit carrier escorts. A successful hit will almost certainly result in at least a “mission kill,” disabling a US carrier for the remainder of the conflict.

.

China PLA one


解放軍

THE PEOPLE’S LIBERATION ARMY


U.S. defense planners are now focusing on Syria, but they have also been compelled to plan for countering Chinese efforts at what Western analysts term “anti-access/area denial” (A2/AD) capabilities. How successfully Washington deals with Beijing’s increasing capabilities in this area will go a long way toward determining how much faith our western Pacific allies place in our commitments to them.
China’s efforts at developing A2/AD capabilities, which the Chinese term “counter-intervention,” are rooted in the pattern of Chinese economic growth and their assessment of lessons learned from recent major wars.
In the 1960s and 1970s, Mao Zedong, fearing attack from both the U.S. and the Soviet Union, concentrated economic development well-inland. Mao sought to protect China’s “third-line” of industry from attack by interposing China’s physical space between it and likely attackers.
Mao’s successor, Deng Xiaoping, reversed much of this policy (among many others) when he inaugurated the period of Reform and Opening in 1978. Thanks to Deng’s policies, China’s economic center of gravity has shifted to its coast, where foreign and domestic investment has been most heavily weighted. Indeed, part of Bo Xilai’s popular appeal (as Party Secretary of inland Sichuan province) was his argument that China’s inland areas had been slighted for more than three decades of economic expansion.
Ironically, the desire for strategic depth to keep potential enemies at arm’s length from China’s economic centers is a key factor in the development of Chinese A2/AD capabilities, further motivated by Chinese observations of other people’s wars. From Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm in 1990 through NATO operations in the Balkans, the toppling of the Taliban and Saddam Hussein, and the destruction of the Qaddafi regime in Libya, air power has played a major, if not central, role. In each of these conflicts, American-led forces have used sustained aerial attacks (from a variety of platforms) to degrade an opponent’s defensive capabilities and destroy their economic, political and communications infrastructure at minimal cost to itself. The American ability to rapidly deploy carrier-based air power in the 1995-1996 Taiwan crisis is also believed by some to have been a factor.
PLA analyses have concluded that air power is essential for the conduct of “non-contact, non-linear, non-symmetric” warfare. In their view, these three qualities are typical of “local wars under informationized conditions,” where air power—along with space and cyber capabilities—will be essential to victory. Consequently, China’s efforts in A2/AD are intended to forestall, and if possible defeat, an opponent’s ability to engage in sustained aerial attack against key Chinese targets.
China’s A2/AD efforts are therefore focused on countering both American land- and sea-based air power, including not only aircraft carriers, but cruise missiles and long-range bombers. To this end, Chinese strategy has strategic, operational and tactical dimensions.
The strategic dimension is embodied in the so-called “three warfares.” The objective is to fundamentally deny the legitimacy of U.S. operations in the western Pacific using legal, public opinion and psychological warfare. These initiatives are coupled with diplomacy and efforts to secure control of the East Asian littoral. The U.S. is not the sole target here. These efforts are aimed just as much at U.S. allies and third parties throughout the region. If Beijing can persuade these states that Washington should not be allowed to operate in their air and sea-space, or that it is dangerous for them to antagonize China by doing so, it as effectively shuts down American capabilities as physically destroying them.
The operational dimension focuses on denying the U.S. the ability to operate in its customary manner. Based on their analyses of past American-led military actions, the Chinese have concluded that victory in future wars is rooted in the ability to establish “information dominance (zhi xinxi quan).” The side that can better collect, transmit and exploit information, while denying an opponent the same ability, will be the victor. In practice, for the PLA this means attacking American information networks, and especially their space capabilities. By combining physical attacks on satellites with non-contact disruption and degradation of their operations (e.g., by dazzling them with lasers), along with cyber attacks on the information that passes over those satellites, the PLA hopes to prevent the U.S. from effectively striking at over-the-horizon targets, even as China defends its territory while enjoying the physical advantage of operating closer to its own shores and infrastructure.

.

China ornament II

.

PLA

Approximate structure of the PLA ground forces are organized in seven military districts: Beijing, Shenyang, Lanzhou, Jinan, Nanjing, Guangzhou and Chengdu Folk – with the functions of commands in theater. The composition of these districts include provincial military districts. The troops of the Beijing Military Region, intended for the defense of the capital and Inner Mongolia. On its territory there are military structure of the province of Hebei and Shanxi, as well as, a division of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Separate military-administrative units are the cities of Beijing and Tianjin. In the district include the 27th, 38th and 65th Armies. Commander of the district – 张仕波 (zhāng shì bō), Commissioner – 刘福 连 (liú fú lián). Army 27: 188, 235 mechanized brigades; 80, 82 Infantry Brigade; 7 Tank Brigade; 16 Artillery Brigade; air defense brigade. Army 38: 6 Armored Division; 112, 113 mechanized divisions; 6 Artillery Brigade; air defense brigade; brigade of special purpose; 8 Army Aviation Regiment. 65 Army: 193 Mechanized Division, 195 Mechanized Brigade; 70, 196 Infantry Brigade; 1 Tank Brigade; 14 Artillery Brigade; air defense brigade. Shenyang Military District, for defense northeastern borders of China. On its territory there are military structure of the province of Liaoning, Heilongjiang and Jilin, as well as some units Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. In the district include the 16th, 39th and 40th Army. Commander of the district – 王 教成 (wáng jiào chéng), Commissioner – 褚益民 (chǔ yì mín). Army 16: 49 and 69 Infantry Division; 48, 67, 68 mechanized brigades; 4 Tank Brigade; 10 Artillery Brigade; air defense brigade. 39 Army: 116 Mechanized Division, 190 and 202 mechanized brigades; 115 motorized infantry brigade; 3 Tank Brigade; 7 Artillery Brigade; air defense brigade; Special Purpose Regiment; 9 Regiment Army Aviation. Army 40: 118, 119, 191 Infantry Brigade; 5 Tank Brigade; 11 Artillery Brigade; air defense brigade. Jinan Military District, serves as a strategic reserve. On its territory there are military structure of the province of Shandong and Henan. In the district includes 20 th, 26 th and 54 th Army. Commander of the district – 赵宗岐 (zhào zōng qí), Commissioner – 杜 恒 岩 (dù héng yán). Army 20: 58, 60 mechanized brigades; 13 Tank Brigade; 2 Artillery Brigade; air defense brigade. 26 Army: 200 Mechanized Brigade; 77, 138, 199 motorized brigades; 8 Tank Brigade; 8 Artillery Brigade; air defense brigade; Special Purpose Regiment; 7 Regiment Army Aviation. Army 54: 127, 162 mechanized divisions; 160 Mechanized Brigade; 11 Tank Brigade; Artillery Brigade; air defense brigade; 1 regiment of army aviation. Lanzhou Military Region is focused on Mongolian, Central Asian and Pakistani direction. On its territory there are military structure of the province of Shaanxi, Gansu, Ningxia, Qinghai, as well as the Xinjiang provincial military district. The structure of the military district includes 21th, 47th Army, as well as SPVO. Commander of the district – 刘 粤军 (liú yuè jūn), Commissioner – 苗 华 (miáo huá). Army 21: 61 motorized division; 62 Mechanized Brigade; 12 Tank Brigade; Artillery Brigade; air defense brigade; 184 brigade of special purpose. 47 Army: 139 Mechanized Brigade; 55, 56 Infantry Brigade; 9 Tank Brigade; 15 Artillery Brigade; air defense brigade. Xinjiang Provincial Military District 6 Mechanized Division; 4, 6, 11 Infantry Division; 2 Artillery Brigade; air defense brigade; 3 Brigade Army Aviation; 1 independent regiment. Nanjing Military District, oriented to the east and south-east direction. On its territory there are military structure of the province of Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui, Fujian and Jiangxi. Separate military-administrative entity is Shanghai. In the district includes the 1st, 12th and 31th Army. Commander of the district – 蔡 英挺 (cài yīng tǐng), Commissioner – 郑卫平 (zhèng wèi píng). Army 1: 1 amphibious mechanized division; 178 Mechanized Brigade; 3 Motorized Brigade; 10 Tank Brigade; 9 artillery division; air defense brigade; 5 Army Aviation Brigade; EW team. Army 12: 34, 35 mechanized brigades; 36, 179 motorized brigades; 2 Tank Brigade; Artillery Brigade; air defense brigade. Army 31: 86, 91 motorized divisions; 92 motorized brigade; 14 Tank Brigade; 3 Artillery Brigade; air defense brigade; brigade of special purpose; Army Aviation Regiment 10. Guangzhou Military District, is focused on the southern direction and defense of the Vietnamese-Chinese border. On its territory there are military structure of the province of Hubei, Hunan, Guangdong, Guangxi and Hainan. In addition, subject to the command of the garrison in Hong Kong. In the district consists of 41 th and 42 th Army, as well as Hainan Provincial Military District. Commander of the district – 徐 粉 林 (xú fěn lín), Commissioner – 魏 亮 (wéi liàng). 41 Army: 123 Mechanized Division; 121 Motorized Division; 15 Tank Brigade; Artillery Brigade; air defense brigade. 42 Army: 124 amphibious mechanized division; 163 motorized infantry division; 16 Tank Brigade; 1 Artillery Brigade; air defense brigade; brigade of special purpose; 6 Brigade Army Aviation. Hainan Provincial Military District: 132 motorized brigade. Hong Kong Garrison: Infantry Brigade, Center Transport Management and Supply, the PLA Air Force helicopter unit; group of the Chinese Navy, as well as control center transport and logistics, and infantry units in Macau. Chendusky Military District protects the southern and south-westerly direction and defending the border with Vietnam, Laos, Burma, Nepal and India. Located within the county structure of military areas of Sichuan, Guizhou and Yunnan, as well as the military forces of the Tibetan provincial district. Separate military-administrative entity is the city of Chongqing. In the district includes the 13th and 14th Army, as well as Tibetan provincial military district. Commander of the district – 李作成 (lǐ zuò chéng), Commissioner – 朱福熙 (zhū fú xī). Army 13: 37, 149 motorized divisions; 17 Tank Brigade; Artillery Brigade; air defense brigade; brigade of special purpose; 2 Army Aviation Brigade. Army 14: 31, 40 Infantry Division; 18 Tank Brigade; 4 Artillery Brigade; air defense brigade. Tibetan provincial military district: 52, 53 Mountain Infantry Brigade; 54 Mechanized Brigade; 308 Artillery Regiment; anti-aircraft artillery regiment.

.

Russia – China. In terms of military dominance

China’s military dominance over the past 5 years was on the second place in terms of growth of military spending, second only to Russia. However, the absolute value of Moscow is unlikely to catch up with Beijing in the near future – the volume of China’s military spending, given the purchasing power factor, close to that of the US, which 3 years ago spent on the military more than all other countries combined. So few years the situation has changed radically. America has to moderate appetites for defense – from 2010 to 2015 Pentagon budget was “blown away” from 713 to 502 billion dollars. During the same period, China increased its contrary military spending from 78 to 131.3 billion, while taking into account the hidden cost items and the factor of purchasing power parity, up to 302 billion. The effectiveness of these expenditures on the development of its own technology, import substitution and build their own industrial competence in the economy can be called one of the highest in the world. The industrial production index in industry segments MIC in 2014 reached an unprecedented magnitude – 123.2%. The most successful were those industries that have received more initial impulse from the transfer of Soviet and Russian technology – rocket and aircraft. Experts note that after last year against the backdrop of the crisis in relations between Russia and the west of Moscow has opened  Beijing promising military technology of the first level in the coming years, the growth of the Chinese defense industry has greatly accelerated. Hidden Dragon In 2011, the PLA budget was $ 91.5 billion, which is 12.7 percent more than in 2010 ($ 78 billion). In 2012, defense spending rose to 95.4 billion dollars, and in 2013 to 670 billion. Yuan, equivalent to 106 billion dollars. In 2014, the military budget was increased by $ 11 billion. – Up to 117 billion dollars. In 2015, defense spending in China, according to the decision of the Central Committee, are expected to grow by 12.2% – up to 808 billion yuan, up 131.3 billion dollars. This figure already puts China in second place in the world of sovereign military spending. However, it still does not reflect the true scale of militarization of the country, because it does not take into account the budgets of programs to modernize the defense industry and some branches of industry and science, which are not formally attributed to the military, but de facto work for the needs of the army and the military-industrial complex. For example, the space program, about 2/3 of expenditure for which is classified information and aimed at targets for military intelligence, or the creation of a space-based weapons. Thus, the state program of development involves the placement of the Moon on its surface inertial missile systems, including nuclear weapons carriers. If you count all these hidden costs, it turns out that China’s military budget for 2015 will exceed the sum of 202 billion dollars. This is a conservative estimate. Close to this amount, and called the NSA analysts in its report in December 2014. – 205-210 billion. This is about 40% of the newly reduced US defense budget for 2015 fiscal year (502 billion). For comparison: in 2010 the ratio was 1 to 10 – 78 billion against 713 billion dollars. However, these figures can not adequately reflect the real military and economic potential of China, because China’s economy is very different purchasing power parity. The cost of production of the same instance of MIC products in China is much lower than in the US. Pentagon analysts estimate the difference coefficient of 0.67, ie, for example, to produce a tank with specific TTX Americans spend on it 1 million, and the Chinese are only 670,000. According to most of the rest of expenditure military departments, such as the construction of residential and engineering infrastructure, uniforms, food, etc. ratio is even smaller – 0,45-0,57. Therefore, the actual payments resource Chinese Defense Ministry corresponds to the figure of 303 to 360 billion dollars in US payment terms. And this is from 60 to 70% of the costs of the Pentagon. According to the forecast of the Stockholm Peace Research Institute, in 2018, while maintaining the existing dynamics (reduction of the military budget in the US and growth in China), military and financial resources of Beijing will exceed the US by 10-15%. Now consider how the cost-effectiveness of China, which monitored the implementation of key military projects in recent years. The whole range of industries military-industrial complex to consider in a text does not make sense, so as an example subject the analysis of the most sensitive segment of particular importance for strategic military security of the country in the long term – missile technology. DF-41 – missile capable to overcome the US global missile defense In 2009, the PLA launched a program under the heading 41H, which were involved in 156 research institutes and industrial enterprises and for which 5 years of existence, according to the Japanese independent analysts, was spent 1.1 billion dollars. As a result, in 2014 the world had spread the news that Beijing had successfully tested a new ultra-fast missile capable of overcoming air defense system of the United States. Thus, China became the third country after Russia and the United States, having weapons of this type. This intercontinental ballistic missile “DF-41” (DF-41), equipped with multiple reentry warhead and reaching a speed of Mach 6. Military experts, even the US, have recognized that it is able to overcome the US missile defense system – THAAD and SAM Patriot. The missile can hit targets at a distance of 15,000 kilometers and carry a warhead of 12 nuclear warheads. According to Kyodo, test, recorded by the US military, was held on 02/12 in the west of China. Beijing intends to adopt new missiles in service until 2020. Compare: American Trident III, a similar performance characteristics to the Chinese, was created 12 years and its development and testing has been spent 16 billion dollars. DF-21D – The world’s first anti-ship ballistic missile in 2010, the Committee for Armaments CCP put military-industrial complex task of developing a promising  missile system capable of maneuvering with congestion and 4,5G to overcome missile defense system near and intermediate-range sea-based. Already last year, the rocket was successfully tested DF-21D – the first and only in the world of anti ship ballistic missile. DF-21 can also be used as a carrier for the anti / anti-missile weapons. Its firing range – 900 miles. Chinese missile technology creators still have to solve many difficult problems before the DF-21D, also known under the designation CSS-5 Mod-4, will go into service, but today the American generals recognize its potential threat to the US Navy. For example, US Defense Secretary Robert Gates at the time said that the DF-21D missile could undermine freedom of navigation and to “reduce the US strategic opportunities.” Chief of Naval Operations, that is the commander in chief of the US Navy, Admiral Gary Rafhed said at the time: “DF-21 missile is a weapon worthy of attention. It is encouraging that our carriers are able to maneuver and we have a system that can withstand such weapons. “With regard to the effectiveness of: data on the cost of the project, we could not find, but is itself a term of 4 years on the task to a successful trial is impressive. But the apparent success in the underwater part of the Chinese nuclear triad, which managed to keep secret until the trial. China has created its own version of Russian “Bulava”, only with a little less able to maneuver and naturally with not as great resources for course correction (China does not yet have a full satellite constellation targeting, such as Russia and the United States). Rocket named JL-2 or JL-2, literally: “Big Wave-2”, according to the classification DoD – CSS-N-4. This two-stage solid-propellant ballistic missile submarines placed on the project 094 “Jin”, which, incidentally, is largely replicate the Russian “Borey” project 955A. It was created on the basis of an intercontinental missile Dongfeng-31 (DF-31), but adapted to the submarine-based. The rocket, in addition to the one-piece can installs a shared MS 3-4 warheads, flight range 8-12 thousand. Kilometers. According to Japanese intelligence, Beijing took only 2.5 years for the project, from the decision of the Committee on Arms in August 2009 and ending with the successful test launch in March 2012. If the growing ambitions to accumulate records of recent years the intelligence services of the largest military powers – the United States , Russia, Germany, Israel, India – it can be concluded that enhancing China’s military power is perceived as a major threat to national security in the next 20-30 years. In this case, all analysts are unanimous that the modernization of weapons and the construction of the defense industry in China is a highly effective and shows the highest dynamics among all countries of the world. They point to the fact of copying technologies in most modern developments for the Chinese army, however, recognize every year the growth of China’s own development of institutions and enterprises. In addition to the entire spectrum of missile systems and range-based experts say success in creating stealth fighter aircraft 5th-generation J-20 and J-31, as well as success in the completion of the Soviet aircraft carrier (up until the sea trial none of the experts believed that China succeed within a reasonable time to finish and equip the ship). Chinese dragon ambitions are now spread even to distant space, Beijing has had his own global program “Star Wars”. Last year, the China National Space Administration announced the project on the development of strategic nuclear missiles lunar bases on the Moon and create a full-fledged military base. As the rationale for the project already approved by the Central Committee of the Party, “Luna can be used as a place of launching missiles against any targets on the surface of the Earth.” In addition, consider the option of creating polygons on the moon for the testing of weapons, as well as a base for sending vehicles into deep space. The Western press, commenting, wrote that the Chinese are going to make of the Moon “Death Star” – the so-called military space station in kinosage George Lucas’ “Star Wars”. China’s lunar program was launched several years ago. In 2007 was launched a lunar orbiter “Chang’e-1” in 2010 – “Chang’e 2”. As a result, Chinese experts have made three-dimensional map of the lunar surface with high resolution, which, incidentally, has not yet succeeded in neither the US nor Russia. Late last year, Beijing has launched a probe “Chang’e-3”, which is delivered to the surface of the moon-propelled vehicle “Yutu” (“Jade Hare”), whose tasks include, in addition to research missions, finding a suitable structure for the soil to accommodate mines starting missiles.

.

2016    ***********************************************

.

Room No.15. PRC Nuclear Weapons Development


SIS China



.中國人民共和國

不對稱戰爭。中國人民共和國

請注意,這是一個正在進行的焦點,因此不斷擴大

Asymmetric Warfare. The People’s Republic of China

Please note that this is an ongoing focus and thus, will be continually expanded


.

.中國人民共和國 The Asymmetric Warfare articles are listed in the Section : ARTICLES


Topic: .中國人民共和國 – Multiple Independently-targeted Reentry Vehicle technology (MIRV)


.中國人民共和國 – Emerging Counter-Space Capabilities


中國人民共和國
中國的攻擊直升機Z-19E的出口版
圖片

The EXPORT VERSION of the Chinese attack helicopter Z-19E


.

.中國人民共和國 – Additional Articles – not included in Articles Library


 中國的人民共和國。擴軍。中國在過去的五年是在第二位的軍費開支,僅次於俄羅斯的增長方面。但是,莫斯科的絕對值是不可能趕上北京在不久的將來 – 中國軍費開支的體積,考慮到購買力因素,接近超車,美國的  轉到第

The People’s Republic of China. Military buildup. China over the past five years was on the second place in terms of growth of military spending, second only to Russia. However, the absolute value of Moscow is unlikely to catch up with Beijing in the near future – the volume of China’s military spending, given the purchasing power factor, close to overtaking that of the US. (go to article)


俄羅斯聯邦作為一個姐姐到中國。在今天的俄羅斯與西方之間的關係是沒有威懾在冷戰年代就已存在。這使得情況更為危險的,這取決於是誰在做評估。在這種情況下,俄羅斯在歐洲人和美國人的眼睛的感知繼續惡化。中國,雖然有興趣與俄羅斯的睦鄰友好關係,因此在地緣政治遊戲中中國不希望參與並支持俄羅斯,這樣做不會對任何利益,無論他們被認為是不利。 轉到第

The Russian Federation acts as an older sister to China. In today’s relations between Russia and the West are none of the deterrents that existed during the Cold War years. This makes the situation potentially more dangerous, depending on who is making the assessment. In this case, the perception of Russia in the eyes of Europeans and Americans has continued to deteriorate. China, though, is interested in good neighborly relations with Moscow, thus in the geopolitical game, China does not want to get involved and supports Russia, doing so will not be to the detriment of any interests, whatever they are deemed to be.  (go to article)

China art IV


中國正在建設的第二大海軍載體,驅逐艦Zamvolta後。在未來的驅逐艦(導彈巡洋艦)型055,以及通過了航母遼寧,是展示中國的野心,作為最大的海軍實力的候選者的另一個不祥的事件。 轉到第

The PLA Navy. The People’s Republic of China is building the second largest naval carrier, after the destroyer Zamvolta. The prospective destroyer (missile cruiser) Type 055, along with the adoption by the aircraft carrier Liaoning, was another ominous event that demonstrated China’s ambitions as a candidate for the greatest naval power.  (go to article)


北京測試了在移動平台上的第一個洲際彈道導彈 – 彈頭,發射這是非常難以察覺,它能夠到達美國。中國將很快達到世界核大國名單上排名第三,僅次於俄羅斯和美國, – 超越法國。不久未來是排名第一,北京的決心,足見在這個舞台上。(閱讀文章

Beijing has tested the first intercontinental ballistic missile on a mobile platform – the warhead, the launch of which is very difficult to detect, it is able to reach the United States. China will very soon attain third ranking on the list of the world’s nuclear powers, after Russia and the United States, – surpassing France. Not long ahead is first ranking, Beijing’s determination is well demonstrated in this arena. (go to article)


解放軍海軍擬提名沿海地區的他們的防守外線在公海上。在開闊海域的作戰行動需要新的船,它的武器和能力允許未經岸上支持工作。 轉到第)

The PLA Navy intends to nominate their defensive perimeter of the coastal zone in the open sea. Combat operations in open sea areas require new ships, whose weapons and capabilities allow to operate without support from the shore.  (go to article)


現在是出現了三角形;俄羅斯 – 印度 – 中國。在2015年2月2日,北京舉辦俄羅斯,印度和中國的外長會議。議程包括有關的問題;衝突在烏克蘭,推動對伊朗核計劃的談判,以及中東的局勢,特別是在敘利亞和伊拉克。 轉到第

Now is the emerged triangle;  Russia – India – China. On 02/02/2015, Beijing hosted a meeting of the foreign ministers of Russia, India and China. The agenda included issues relating to; the conflict in Ukraine, promotion of negotiations on the Iranian nuclear program, as well as the situation in the Middle East, especially in Syria and Iraq.  (go to article)


在演習(照片)中國導彈部隊(

Chinese missile troops on maneuvers (pictura)  (go to article)


China art IV

 在緬甸東北部的局勢終於不再是內部衝突,並在最後的日子裡變得清晰,中國無法避免參與其中。如果在一個月前,戰爭的主要戰場是克欽邦,但現在的戰爭排在果敢自治區,人口種族中國。極大地提高了衝突的強度 – 個別衝突和空襲,移動到真正的對抗。 – 參考果敢 – 緬甸撣邦自治區,居住著中國人。 轉到第

The situation in the north-east of Myanmar finally ceased to be an internal conflict, and in the last days it becomes clear that China cannot avoid participation in it. If a month ago, the main theatre of war was Kachin State, but now the war came in the autonomous region of Kokang, populated by ethnic Chinese. Dramatically increasing the intensity of the conflict – from individual clashes and air strikes, moving on to the real confrontations. – reference to Kokang – Autonomous Region of the Burmese Shan State, populated by Chinese.  (go to article)


如何遏制中國?美國軍方把臉轉向亞洲已經開始。到2020年,美國海軍和空軍計劃將其力量的60%,在亞太地區。與此同時,五角大樓投入了顯著共享的資源減少了設計中增加了危險條件下工作的新的戰略轟炸機和核潛艇。這些變化顯然旨在遏制日益咄咄逼人中國而且有很好的理由;不斷增長的領土要求北京威脅著幾乎所有國家沿著所謂的“第一島鏈”包括日本,菲律賓及台灣的部分地區和華盛頓已經承諾保衛國家。但為了安全地阻止中國侵略,五角大樓將不得不走得更遠因此,對中國問題的可能性越來越大華盛頓的能力,以提供給盟友和夥伴的軍事支持。 轉到第

How to contain China? The US military turning toward Asia has already begun. By 2020, the US Navy and the Air Force plan to place 60% of its forces in the Asia-Pacific region. At the same time the Pentagon invests a significant share of its resources reduced in the new strategic bombers and nuclear submarines designed to operate in conditions of increased danger. These changes are clearly aimed at curbing the increasingly aggressive China. And with good reason; the growing territorial claims Beijing threatens virtually all the countries along the so-called “first island chain”, including parts of Japan, the Philippines and Taiwan, and Washington has pledged to defend the state. But in order to safely deter Chinese aggression, the Pentagon will have to go even further. Thus, the growing possibility of Chinese question the ability of Washington to provide military support to allies and partners.  (go to article)


中國的外交政策:一個新的領導者 – 活動進程對全球政治舞台上一門新課程,不僅對國際社會作為一個整體,而且對個別國家舉行外交政策的關係有很大的影響。中國外交政策的傳統已經發展了六年半的幾十年中,現代挑戰的影響下正在發生一些變化。然而,他們到期,未來該國的新領導人的權力 – 習近平同志。第五代國門的掌舵人,並在此期間,領導能力,成功地實現了大量的,包括在外交政策領域 轉到第

China’s foreign policy: a new leader – a new course of active processes on the global political arena, has a strong impact not only on relations in the international community as a whole, but also on foreign policy held by individual countries. The tradition of China’s foreign policy has evolved over six and a half decades, under the influence of the modern challenges is undergoing some changes. However, they are due, and the coming to power of the new leader of the country – Comrade Xi Jinping. The fifth generation of the country’s leadership at the helm and during which time has managed to achieve a great deal, including in the area of foreign policy.  (go to article)


China art IV

伊犁地區的人民;東部和西部蒙古人,稱為Mugami或卡爾梅克人(卡爾梅克人的發音位置),是一次強大的國家和聯盟,威脅中國的殘餘。中國巧妙的政策,佛教尤其是傳播分心這些民族的全部能量和活動在佛教的宗教與和平理想球體完全吸收他們的舊的戰鬥。各種各樣的活動,中國政府正試圖使用武力作為蒙古人逐漸中和它們與其他人口,摧毀他們的通用設備和引進一般軍事管理。該區域包含以下屬卡爾梅克:察哈爾(或TsaharyElyuty(Ulyuty,Olots)Torguts(圖爾古特,土爾扈特部)和Hoshoty。 轉到第

The people of Ili region; eastern and western Mongols, called Mugami or Kalmyks (Kalmyks as pronounced herein), are remnants of the once powerful states and alliances, threatening China. Clever policy of China, and especially the spread of Buddhism distracted all the energy and activity of these peoples in the sphere of religious and peaceful ideals of Buddhism completely absorbed their old militancy. Various activities, the Chinese government is trying to using military force as the Mongols gradually neutralize them with the rest of the population, destroying their generic device and introducing general military administration. The region contains the following genera Kalmyk: Chahar (or Tsahary) Elyuty (Ulyuty, Olots) Torguts (Turgut, Torgouts) and Hoshoty.  (go to article)


中國藝術的獸形圖案(去文)

Beauty : Culture pervasive – Zoomorphic patterns of Chinese art  (go to study article)


好好看看我吧。
我們擁有你的一切,這是肯定的,我們會自己,你會想到的一切。

(

Secrets? What on earth do you mean? (go to article)


,中國人民共和國的軍事實力不如其他世界大國的說法是有爭議的如意算盤

(

The argument that the military power of the People’s Republic of China is inferior to other world powers is contentious wishful thinking. (go to article)


PLA WOMEN I


中國人民共和國

Military Training. Young Students. The People’s Liberation Army


.

VIDEO

解放軍


The PRC.


Video (II)

中國人民共和國

視頻

勝利大遊行 2015年

慶祝日本投降二戰七十週年,中國已展示了數百其最新軍事裝備在超過十二萬軍隊在幾十個世界領導人面前穿過天安門廣場遊行它見證了顯著的遊行

2015. Celebrating the seventieth anniversary of Japan’s capitulation in WWII, China has showcased hundreds of its newest military hardware in a remarkable parade which saw some 12,000 troops marching across Tiananmen Square in front of dozens of world leaders

.

New PLA ICBM can hit the US within thirty minutes max

04/2016

PLA – new long-range ballistic missile Dongfeng-41 (East Wind, DF-41) capable of engaging any potential target worldwide. The rocket takes just 30 minutes to cover its maximum 12,000km range and can deliver multiple strikes on any nuclear-capable state.

Test launch was from a new road-mobile platform, and is the seventh test-firing of the DF-41.

The DF-41 is an 80-ton, three-stage solid-fuel missile capable of carrying between six and 10 nuclear warheads.

The test was made with a DF-41 missile armed with two independently target-able reentry vehicles.

As with previous MIRV tests, the PLA has used a small number of reentry vehicles to mask the real capability of the DF-41, which is estimated to be able to loft up to 10 warheads.

13/04/2016 –  Gen. Fan Changlong of the PLA headed a group of military commanders to inspect construction work at a man-made island in the Spratly Islands group. The exact date of the visit was not officially announced.

The test  took place three days before current US Defense Secretary Ashton Carter visited the aircraft carrier USS John C. Stennis, operating in the South China Sea and close to the disputed Spratly Islands.


beijing II national stadium

北京


CHINA ABC

(C-III)

.

Contact Unit – we read everything sent



SecretIntelligenceService.london

SecretIntelligenceService-defence.uk


Xi 2

中國人民共和國

Secret Intelligence Service

ADVERSITATE. CUSTODI. PER VERUM


china art SIS.org I

 

 

.