Secret Intelligence Service
Unit (C-I) (C-II) (C-III) (C-IV)
Seminar Notes. Harrogate. 05 04 2018
Two parts : A and B
A BRIEF EVALUATION OF THE POLITICAL REGIME OF VLADIMIR PUTIN
This is a very quick sketch for discussion, in this it is insufficient. It is neither right nor wrong, and the intention is to be neither, more to tease depth of detail and with regard to current events which I know in many ways do either contradict and / or agree what I say below. Basically, a short writing from a neutral perspective.
You should consult the Articles Library, that pertaining to and detailing the Russian Federation (page I part II).
With regard to Russian President Vladimir Putin, there are extremely polar opinions: from the ‘saviour of Russia’ to that of ‘the brutal dictator arrived from the Middle Ages’. Of course, it is still difficult to give a historical assessment of Putin’s regime, there must be time, but a political assessment can be attempted.
General political assessment :
The most general assessment of Putin’s political regime is the legal form of the French type of the Asian type of production of imperial authoritarianism (called ‘sovereign democracy,’ and subsequently the ‘Russian world’) without a pronounced ideological political ideal with the reproduction of the mobilisation model in the face of the confrontation with the political ideal of ‘Liberal Russia’ while neglecting the social obligations of the state.
It is possible and in another way: the Bonapartist regime of the leader’s personal power with the support of the technologically modern power device with the projection of the state’s power on the Eurasian perimeter of vital interests in the conditions of the mobilization economy of the super-large business, including state corporations.
Traits of ‘Putinism’ :
(I) Avoidance of a clearly expressed ideological doctrine, presupposing the duties of the political elite before the nation, there is nothing further than framework discussions. The last example is the doctrine of the “Russian world”.
(II)Disregard for the social sphere of society, that is, the lack of accelerated modernisation of social institutions, the authorities regard social institutions only as groupings of the ruling regime without the need to form a free person as a responsible citizen,
(II) The rate on the power unit as a guarantor of retaining the power of the political elite, huge amounts of money spent on power structures and, in particular, accelerated buildup of military power,
(IV) Technological modernisation of the technical base of the economy without changing the essence of economic relations, that is, the means of production change, but without the main thing – changes in social and economic relations,
(V) The dominance of the power of Putin, who has supreme power, and the atrophying of the role of other federal institutions of power, other institutions of power are simply not perceived by society as such and do not have any legitimacy without a connection with the supreme leader,
(VI) The direct mandate of the leader from the people, when he directly addresses the people, without relying on other state institutions, Putin relies on the “Putin majority” as citizens who are law-abiding on the one hand and on the other with imperial thinking
(VII) The spread of the power of the state along the perimeter of vital state interests for the survival of the political elite, the state desperately defends its narrowing interests in the absence of an attractive model of global development.
Western evaluation of Vladimir Putin’s regime :
The Western assessment of Putinism; the illegitimate state of the imperial power dictatorship with an archaic management model in the conditions of the raw material economy with an attempt at technological modernisation through the mobilisation of resources by the state, mainly to solve the military and political tasks of strengthening the state, in which Putin’s power can be overthrown only by direct military intervention of free Western peace, when the Russian people themselves are intimidated by propaganda.
From the point of view of the West, this way :
(I) An illegal state, that is, the absence of the rule of law and guarantees of rights and freedoms,
(II) The imperial power dictatorship as a support of the regime on the power apparatus throughout the territory of power,
(III) An archaic management model, in which the fear of punishment does not even work in the conditions of the cult of money, including in the power structures,
(IV) The raw material economy, the problem, not so much the economy itself, but how much the absence of small and medium business in the country, on the one hand, and on the other – the absence of venture capitalism forms,
(V) Attempt of technological modernisation in conditions of threat to the very existence of the political elite with direct backwardness of the power apparatus in comparison with other rival countries. However, it is conventionally said that the machine is being modernised, but not the worker and the connections between the workers, that is, the instrumental attitude towards modernization
(VI) Putin’s regime can be overthrown only by direct military intervention of the advanced free Western world of democracies, since the Russian people are passive because of the natural law-abiding power and intimidated by uninterrupted propaganda.
(VII) Foreign policy failures
Ukraine, despite the acquisition of the Crimea, is the loudest foreign policy failure of Putin. Russia’s position is, at a minimum, in the neutral status of Ukraine, and as a maximum – integration into a single Eurasian geopolitical space of the Russian world.
The United States also views Ukraine as Russia considers the Donbass in relation to the Crimea, that is, while Ukraine is occupied by the Donbass in the Crimea, it does not climb, and the United States on the contrary believes that if they now surrender Ukraine, the next will be the Baltic with the Russian diaspora.
It should be noted that Putin always relies on the economic interest of political elites of other states and subjects of the federation, neglecting work with the masses. It is probably easier for him to conduct a policy in the field of hardware.
The second major failure of recent years can also be called isolation with the Western world. Western technologies are extremely necessary for technological modernisation and acceleration of the overtaking development of the country. Isolation deprives Russia of much-needed technological resources and Western financing. >The ever close relationship with The People’s Republic of China?<
Vladimir Putin and the Russian world :
One can pay attention to the constant same picture; the political regime of Putin essentially avoids the proclamation of any ideological doctrines. We can assume that this situation develops because any doctrine presupposes the mutual responsibilities of the political elite and the nation. However, today’s Russian political elite with the cult of money basically does not want to have any obligations to the people at all, but only to the supreme leader.
We also note the complete lack of influence of the expert community on the actions of the authorities and an extremely low authority for the authorities of Russian expert analytical centres – think tanks. Putin’s inner circle is made up of siloviki and not even oligarchs with their possible liberal views.
The officials lack a strategic vision of the situation, the main fear of the boss, if he/she did not follow orders, however bad it might be.
The main direction of criticism :
It is useless to criticise Putin for economic setbacks, he is distanced, he is “above the battle.” Criticism must follow the line that Russia is not a Russian state, that is, it is not a state of “the kingdom of the Russian spirit.” The state parasitises on the people, solving problems as they say ‘at the expense of the end user’, but, in essence, squeezing all the juices out of the people. The supreme power was never the power of the Russians, there were at least the Zemsky Sobors, the self-government, the zemstvos, but it was never the supreme power that was the power of the Russians.
Thus, Vladimir Putin’s political regime sets an extremely conservative agenda without any modernisation of social institutions and social structure, so necessary today. The state strives to make a bet on the forceful mobilisation development of the country. However, modernising only the military sphere of society without a social sphere will doom the country to a backlog in the historical perspective and the inability to develop normally economically.
POLITICAL PROGRAMME OF EURASIA ON KEY SOCIO-POLITICAL ISSUES
THE RUSSIAN STATE
The formula of state power in Russia is :
The supreme authority
Emerging from the Russian idea as Rossi’s place in the world
Backed by a union of bureaucracy, military, national democratic party and church
Resting on an elected people’s representation in parliament
Possible only on the sacred ground of Russians – Russia
Incarnate in itself the ideal of Holy Russia
State institutions of Eurasia :
The Great Sanctified Zemsky Sobor
Federal Zemsky Sobor
The Supreme Council
The Federal Judiciary Council
The Federal Council for National Security
The Federal Administrative Council
Council of Ministers
The device of the authorities
At the heart of the Russian world order are three principles :
(I) The zemstvo or social principle, which comes from below and acts as the support of statehood, the Zemstvo principle expresses the will of the land, the will of the people, united in an alliance,
(II) The state or imperative principle, which is the center of the state structure of the life of society, which is formed by the lands for the arrangement of the hostel of peoples,
(III) The ‘Religious Principle’, embodied in the plan of ‘God for Russia’, that is, God’s predestination for Russia.’
In the Federation the following levels of power; federal, regional, land, sub-regional (county), municipal (district-volost) and territorial public self-government. The federal government is the main state power, territorial public self-government is the main public authority, the power-supply (administrative-managerial division) – regional (federal corresponds), sub-regional (land corresponds) and municipal (public). The power-supply provides the activity of the main power and is a managerial apparatus, territorially separated, that is, answering zonal. Power, in which the three begin to unite, and where the earth comes from – the land, which acts as the fundamental authority. The federal authority includes the supreme (constituent, established and conciliatory) and other authorities or branches of power – executive, representative, control and judicial.
The ‘supreme authority’ :
The supreme power includes three powers or elements – constituent, established, conciliatory and by nature absolute, leading the rest of the government.
Models of organisation of supreme power :
(I) The Supreme secular constituent power is headed by the Federal Supreme State Council of the heads of regions who elects the Russian president as a federal secular established government, executive power is exercised by the government, the Patriarch is the head of the church,
(II) The Supreme spiritual and secular constituent authority is the Great Sanctified Zemsky Sobor, the Council selects the supreme spiritual leader as the head of the supreme spiritual established authority, the patriarch in this case is the administrative head of the church, the president is the secular head of state and executive power, the government as the administration of the president,
(III) The supreme secular constituent power is the Constitutional Assembly, the supreme secular established authority is the president, the executive power is headed by the government, the Patriarch is the head of the church,
(IV) The Supreme secular constituent power is the Great Sanctified Zemsky Sobor, the Federal Zemsky Sobor is a bicameral federal parliament, the Russian president is an elected sovereign, the Patriarch is the head of the church, the Supreme Council rests on the consent of all authorities,
(V) The Supreme secular constituent power is the Great Sanctified Zemsky Sobor, the Federal Zemsky Sobor is a bicameral federal parliament, the state is a constitutional monarchy headed by the sovereign from the Royal House of Romanovs, the Patriarch is the head of the church, the Supreme Council rests on the consent of all authorities.
Currently, the supreme constituent power is the Constitutional Assembly, whose status is only postulated in the current constitution, the supreme established authority is the Russian president.
The Supreme Constituent Power in the future should undividedly belong to the Supreme Sanctified Zemsky Sobor as the Duma of all federated peoples of Russia. This Council is consecrated, as it is collected with the blessing of the holy mother of the Church and in its work the spiritual pastors of the people participate in advisory rights. He alone has the right to change the basic articles of the Constitution. The Great Sanctified Zemsky Sobor sits in chambers, but the voting takes place by the majority of the total number of votes of the deputies of the cathedral.
Chambers of the Great Consecrated Zemsky Sobor :
(I) The clergy (church) – 70 deputies?, of which 2 rabbis, 5 lamas, 10 mullahs and other Orthodox priests,
(II) The state (bureaucracy) – 120 deputies, two groups of 60 deputies are elected – the federal civil service and the federal militarised service,
(III) Society (nation) – the lower house of the Federal Zemsky Sobor (the Federal Duma).
(IV) Regions (people) – the upper house of the Federal Zemsky Sobor (Land Council).
The supreme established authority is the sovereign or the Russian president. In principle, three types of a ‘collective’ head of state are also possible: territorial representation – the Supreme National Council (elect regions), state – the State Council (as the State Council in Dagestan, is elected by the parliament) and ideological – the Gosudarev Council, the council of the team’s associates. In this case, the sovereign is elected for a period of 7 years by all citizens of the country initially and subsequently his powers are prolonged by the Great Sanctified Zemsky Sobor. The Sovereign can also be elected from among the Royal House of the Romanovs according to the dynastic succession. The President’s Administration is the Federal Administration of the Sovereign.
The Supreme Council was created to seek the consent of the authorities in a crisis situation and is convened at the initiative of the sovereign. In principle, this is the supreme conciliatory authority, the third authority of the supreme authority of the Russian state. It includes representatives from all state authorities, including the emperor, the prime minister, the head of the chambers of the Federal Zemsky Sobor, heads of federal higher courts. The Supreme Council has the right to formulate binding decisions on the accepted conciliation procedures. The Supreme Council is the organ of the Supreme Political Arbitration. He develops the supreme policy of state construction and considers all projects of state reforms in the last resort.
Federal representative power :
The Federal Parliament or the Federal Zemsky Sobor includes the lower chamber of the public land representation – the Federal Duma and the upper chamber of the territorial allied representation – the Council of the Lands. It seems that this Council is an expression of the zemstvo authority, and not of the state, as opposed to judicial, control or executive. In the Federal Duma, 300 deputies elected by federal single-mandate electoral districts. The Council of the Lands has two senators from the land, which includes the land head as the head of the land and the head of the land parliament.
Chambers have the same competence in the area of passing laws, but the government is elected by the Federal Duma and has political responsibility before it. Only the Federal Duma can form special commissions for parliamentary investigation and appoint the High Court for the trial of the highest persons of the state. The Federal Duma, on the basis of a coalition of parties or a package agreement between them, selects governments according to a proportional representation, the government is bound by a programme of activities.
A variant ? -when the parliament is the National Assembly, the Chamber of Representation of Lands is the Union Chamber (as in Germany). Parliamentary structures can be; a representative consultative form, a public consultative form – a sociolament, as its alternative forms (the 1990s in Russia), the supreme (the Presidential Council under Yeltsin), the party’s pre-parliament in a situation where the parliament cannot work or not elected. Now this is the Public Chamber.
Federal executive power :
The Federal Administrative Council is formed by the government to consider the issues of reforming the structure and activities of the state apparatus. He makes his recommendations and recommendations to the federal government and the tsar. The composition of the Federal Administrative Council is approved by the Federal Duma on the proposal of the Sovereign.
The Cabinet of Ministers or the Presidium of the Government (a narrow government) include the Prime Minister, the Chancellor for Foreign Affairs, the Chancellor-Controller (Control Service), the State Secretaries of Military Affairs, Social Affairs, and Economic Affairs, and the government secretary responsible for the government apparatus. The broad composition of the government is formed by the Council of Ministers, which includes the federal ministers and the Government Presidium. The Government Presidium considers the work plans of the government and controls the work of the federal ministries.
To prepare the national managerial staff, the Higher Administrative School is formed with two years of training (the first higher education is compulsory). He who graduated from the school with excellent academic performance is appointed to the post of head of the department of the federal ministry.
The Federal Ministry of Defence is headed by the Federal Minister of Defence as a political administrative and economic leader, a member of the political party team of the government, deputy ministers are regular military personnel, with the exception of political advisers to the minister, the General Staff is the center of strategic combat planning and combat training of troops.
The Ministry of Defence includes: the General Staff, the Central Military Prosecutor’s Office, the military police, the Main Military Inspectorate, the GRU, the Special Operational Command of the Special Operation Forces (SOK), the Special Operational Command for Internal Security of the South of Russia (SOKOM), the radio electronic troops.
The issues of ensuring the security of the state are handled by the Federal Council of National Security, which includes federal law enforcement agencies and the head of state. Under the FSNB, federal analytical centers for assessing security threats and the Situation Centre for the Head of State are being formed.
The Ministry of Internal Affairs must be transformed into the Federal Criminal Police Service for operational work on crimes of federal competence, along with the public security land police, internal troops to be transformed into the Federal Guard of the Ministry of Justice, to allocate the Federal Service for Economic Crimes, to establish the Federal Investigation Service for minor crimes of federal competence the prosecutor’s office deals with crimes against the state).
Federal Control Authority :
The Federal Control Council heads the control authority and is chaired by the Chancellor-State Comptroller of Finance. This council checks the execution of the budget and approves the government’s report on the budget execution. The Federal Control Council is headed by the Sovereign, the system of control bodies includes :
(I) The control service under the President (control over the execution of the instructions of the Sovereign),
(II) The Federal Accounts Chamber (federal financial control),
(III) The Federal Prosecutor’s Office (control of compliance with laws).
The Federal Judiciary :
The Federal Assembly of the Judicial Corps with the Federal Judicial Council and the system of qualifying collegia is a self-governing system of the judiciary. The Federal Assembly of the Judicial Corps is a representative body of judges, discussing the most acute problems of Russian law and submitting proposals to the authorities of the Federation. The Federal Judicial Council is formed by the Federal Zemsky Sobor and by half the highest federal state bodies. Deals with personnel matters for the appointment and movement of judges by analogy with the Superior Council of Magistracy in France or Italy. Such can form two chambers, one judicial and the second prosecutor’s.
Forms of constitutional justice :
(I) The main – the Federal Constitutional Court as a purely judicial body, the Federal Constitutional Council is not as advisory but as an organ of political legal arbitration or the Chancellor of Justice,
(II) For human rights, the Collegium of the Federal Defenders of Human Rights, which has the right to suspend the operation of any law in the event of its violation of human rights and freedoms,
(III) The ideal? – the correspondence of the Bible or in Islam to the Quran, in the European tradition is not present now?
Federal court systems :
(I) The Federal Constitutional Justice,
(II) The federal administrative courts, headed by the Federal Supreme Administrative Court, then the federal district administrative courts and the federal administrative courts of the lands,
(III) The federal arbitration courts, headed by the Federal Supreme Arbitration Court, then the federal district arbitration courts and the federal arbitration courts of lands,
(IV) Federal courts of general jurisdiction (civil and criminal proceedings) – headed by the Federal Supreme Court, then the Federal District Courts of General jurisdiction, the federal courts of general jurisdiction of the lands and the federal district courts of general jurisdiction.
Land power :
The head of the federal land is a land head, but this applies only to federal lands. The arrangement of federal lands is regulated by a federal general law. The device of the federal national land is determined by the federal special separate law (organic), which approves the constitution of the land.
The landed Duma is the land representative power or land parliament of the federal land. The government of the federal land is the land authority. Land authorities include the land (municipal) police service, the district prosecutor’s office (land crimes of small gravity). At the federal level, the foundations of civil and criminal legislation, and the lands adopt their Civil, Criminal Codes.
The main systems of land courts :
(I) The land constitutional court
(II) Land arbitration courts headed by the Land Supreme Arbitration Court and the Land Arbitration County Court
(III) Land courts of general jurisdiction, headed by the Land Supreme Court, then the district county appeals courts of general jurisdiction and the district courts of general jurisdiction
(IV) Land administrative courts, headed by the Land Administrative Court and the Land Administrative District Courts.
Judicial proceedings on Sharia and Adat can only be carried out in the civil law sphere as competitive with European civil law for Muslims. Claims on these cases, as well as execution are possible only with the consent of all parties. The final instance will be the corresponding collegium of the Supreme Court of the federal national land. It can be directly stated that the administrative, constitutional, civil and criminal forms of judicial proceedings directly provided for in the Constitution will be the main forms, and the Sharia and adat will be consultative or optional.
In principle, in the Supreme Court of the land (not the Supreme Federal at the land level), one can form colleges for adat and sharia cases. Judicial reform can provide for the first stage the formation of optional forms and administrative justice (as in France), the second – the system of special courts (social, financial as in Germany), the third – the separation of legislation.
Thus, Sharia and Adat are advisory forms of courts and are :
(I) Shariat – Shariah Council of the Land Supreme Court, Land Shariah Court (county) and district kadi,
(II) Adat – The Adat board of the Land Supreme Court, the Landed Adjudiciary Court and the district cadi.
FOREIGN POLICY. EUROPEAN DIRECTION
Support of the European Union?
Russia opposes accelerated integration in the post-Soviet space, seeing in this big problems for Europe, not ready for such rapid growth in all directions.
Note the European Defense Union as a counterweight to NATO.
Russia is developing all-round ties with the European defence alliance, hoping for further development of this organisation. The United States considers NATO to be the main instrument of control over Europe.
The US is counteracting and very active the development of European defence structures, informally emphasising that it is better for Germany to be in NATO structures capable of controlling it, and France is inclined to separatism in an alliance. Only the US can guarantee the security of Europe, acting as arbiter and key ally. Russia appears to be proposing building up bilateral relations between Russia and the European Union and will support the strengthening of cooperation between the countries of Europe in the field of defense and security.
Union with France and partnership with Germany? :
The modern political doctrine of France proceeds from the need for sufficient development of France, so as not to depend on the Anglo-Saxon world. Germany for Russia is not an ally, given the strong Atlanticism in Germany and the change of leadership in elections.
Two-level integration in the CIS :
Russia is likely to actively promote the formation of Russian parties in the post-Soviet space. A long-term policy to support pro-Russian political elites and Russian public organisations and so on.
Counteraction to Western revolutions in the CIS space :
The West is pursuing a strategic policy of reducing Russian influence in the Eurasian geopolitical space through the implementation of Western revolutions. Russia is likely to resist the departure of former allies and the emergence of a new sanitary cordon at the borders of states that conduct a completely pro-American policy. What methods of pressure to prevent such kind of revolutions?
Maintenance of defence sufficiency with the United States :
Russia is likely to maintain defence sufficiency at the necessary level and develop modern multipurpose complexes in an attempt to overcome the US missile defense. The development of new means of nuclear deterrence, thus allowing strengthening of the nuclear shield and counteracting nuclear blackmail of Russia? Adoption of new missiles and complexes give an adequate response to American strategic developments.
It must be understood that the US will not in the slightest degree miss its chance to put nuclear pressure on Russia. This is the reality of global politics, and this must be taken into account.
Strategic partnership with the United States :
At the same time, in the field of common interests, Russia might continue to further develop partnership relations with the United States. At the same time, toughly defending Russian interests in the dialogue with the United States.
Preservation of influence on Europe to counteract the United States :
Russia will want to remain influential in Europe, and especially in Eastern Europe. Russia must have sufficient levers of influence. In order to resist the anti-Russian actions and the anti-Russian orientation of NATO positions, not considering NATO as a strategic adversary, but as an organisation seeking to reduce its influence.
Strategic peace with Saudi Arabia? :
It is necessary to understand that the support of neo-Wahhabism in Saudi Arabia is not an end in itself, but a foreign policy global project to increase the influence of Saudi Arabia. Russia might exert all possible pressure on all channels to Saudi Arabia to reach an agreement on stopping the financing of insurgent groups in the Russian Caucasus?
Instead of peace, Russia might offer multilateral cooperation in the field of oil and gas on the one hand, and on the other – the fight against terrorism, given the growing pressure of Islamist groups inside Saudi Arabia. Russia, under certain conditions, might exert pressure through support groups of resistance within Saudi Arabia, including Shiites.
The displacement of the United States from Afghanistan and the cessation of drug production? :
Russia is aimed at ousting the US influence from Central Asia and the withdrawal of American troops from the region of Afghanistan. Russia has suspicions of US support for the production of drugs going to Russia? This is what they are saying. At the same time, the victory of the Islamists is extremely undesirable for Russia. Therefore, Russia might develop ties with the tribes directly, realising its interests, bypassing contacts with the pro-American government of Afghanistan. Will the pro-American government of Afghanistan last long without the presence of foreign troops?
Development of partnership with Islamic international organisations :
Might Russia further develop the close cooperation with Islamic international organisations? First of all, with the Organisation of the Islamic Conference. Russia views the Islamic world as a counterweight to the influence of the US and China and may intend preventing the transformation of Russia’s image into an enemy, given the long-standing events in the Caucasus.
THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
Maintaining cooperation with China :
Will China agree to allied relations with Russia, now betting on the Chinese diasporas in the world? Siberia for China is a strategic reserve in case of war with the United States because of Taiwan and this region is extremely important for China, pursuing a policy of active expansion in the Russian Far East. Russia could develop cooperation with China, not allowing territorial expansion and settlement of Russian lands by ethnic Chinese.
The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation opens new horizons for opposing US policy of dismembering Russia and China through the support of separatists and terror groups. Russia might continue to support the SCO’s initiatives to combat separatism and subversive ideologies in the future.
Strategic peace with Saudi Arabia :
Without a strategic peace with Saudi Arabia, it is impossible to establish peace in the Caucasus and achieve internal reassurance. Saudi Arabia is viewed as a de facto state sponsor of Neo-Wahhabism in the Caucasus, viewing it as a means of increasing its influence and fulfilling the mission of religious statehood. The closest points of contact are joint interests in the field of oil and gas. It is necessary to go to this world, understanding under it not an open war, but a heavy civil war in Chechnya.
In Chechnya there is a clash of the beginning of the boundless personal freedom and responsibility of every Chechen directly to Allah and external statehood. In the form of external statehood is the totalitarianism of the Islamist project and the federal concept of the bloody guidance of the ‘constitutional order.’ Both forms of statehood are supported by no more than 10% of the number of Chechens, this is the limit under the given conditions.
The mechanisms of conciliation :
In accordance with the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the president can use conciliation procedures to resolve the conflict with the subject of the Federation. To date, the mechanisms of conciliation procedures are not fully used. The Association of the Republics of the North Caucasus is not a very influential body for building relations between the Federation and the subjects in the South of Russia.
Security in the South of Russia? :
In the Caucasus there appears to be a civil war of a permanent nature. On the one hand, the idea of an Islamic state of the Caucasus and with another imperial federal arrangement. The policy pursued by the federal center is largely rejected by the Chechen society, therefore, cooperation with Sufi orders and clan structures in Chechen society might be strengthened as complementary elements of Chechen statehood.
To be added forthwith. Part (B) is considerably longer
Secret Intelligence Service
Seminar Notes. Harrogate. 05 04 2018
Adversitate. Custodi. Per Verum