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Secret Intelligence Service

Seminar Discussion

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INSIGHT : WAHHABISM AND SALAFISM 

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The Counter-Terrorism Library

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(C III)

*in note format

The strategy of Wahhabism  is based on the gradual seizure of territory. Small countries are captured entirely, larger – in parts, with separatist movements. The capture of every part is laid out in stages.

I. In a country or region appear Wahhabi recruiters, they are propaganda, they are just observing. Without any conditions, they provide financial assistance, particularly to Islamic organizations, ie. to selected promising candidates for the role of leaders of local associations ( Jamaat ). They acquaint these candidates with their teaching. The alleged leaders – the future Emirs during the hajj in Mecca are normally open offer to join the Wahhabis  (Christians too – for a foreign visit). It is believed that after the pre processing and display of huge wealth these likely candidate cannot refuse.

II . Future emirs try to occupy prominent positions in the traditional religious structures of the area. Overt propaganda is not yet produced, the emphasis being on creating a wide range of supporters of the issuance of financial subsidies for medical treatment, to a secular education abroad, and so on.

III. Formed a small community – Jamaat . Members of the new Jamaat study and pass courses in foreign camps, Wahhabis. Amirs go to the general preaching of Wahhabism.

IV. At the location of Jamaat there is based traditional structures warmed toward separatist ( in small countries – opposition ) movements.  Jamaat supports the rebels, becoming their most combat-ready troops. The military successes attract young people, Jamaat expands, opens the primary boot camps, increasing in the number of those fully trained abroad.

V. Every effort is made to escalate perhaps more acute conflict. All available means stimulates the flow of refugees , in general, any significant movement of people. The situation of the crisis leads to a weakening of traditional structures and the strengthening of Jamaat . On-site training camps are for finishing the course.

VI. The real power is transferred to the shura (council ) of all major emirs  Jamaat  in this area. Traditional structures at this stage prefer to keep to legitimize the ‘sharia’ in the eyes of the population and the outside world.

VII. In the case of dissolution or demoralisation of the government troops, -to eliminate them quickly with traditional structures, based on separatism (opposition, intending the destruction of the power structure. Failing a quick victory over the government forces, arrange a protracted guerrilla war with the same result. But if such a tactic is not effective, Wahhabi  is to rely on military support. In war, as well as in their propaganda, there is the extensive use of bribery. Since the beginning of Wahhabis  war always means that among their enemies are active and widely placed agents.

VIII. The mobilisation of all forces to spread Wahhabism in the surrounding areas .

Nevertheless, Wahhabis  are not always able to accurately execute the plan. For example, the triumphal march of Wahhabism  in the Soviet Union was scheduled to start from Afghanistan. But the collapse of the Soviet Union before the estimated date and the Afghan Wahhabis – the Taliban  needed to start the elimination of traditional structures (Northern Alliance ) much earlier and without the help of Soviet and government forces which significantly delayed the process . In Chechnya, Wahhabis , to prolong the crisis for the final destruction of the clans and traditional Islamic structures. On the other hand, as the scale of the Wahhabis in Chechnya, only the financial support of the Muslim world is not sufficient. So, there has to be the opening of additional training camps outside the zone of influence.

The threat of ‘Salafism’ in the Democratic Republic of Germany

The Ministry of Internal Affairs of Germany has warned against the growth of radical Islam in the direction of – Salafism, which presents a risk of homegrown terrorism. There have been calls for politicians to change the law so that the preachers of hatred could easily be deported.

According to the Minister of Internal Affairs of Hesse, Boris Rhein, (of the conservative Christian Democratic Union), quote; “Salafism  is the center and  basis for those who wish to participate in the so-called holy war.”

“Thus, Salafism is paving the way to Islamic terrorism,” – he said, adding that it is necessary to change the law so that you can easily expel any preacher of hate.

“In the future it would be good to use it for those who distribute literature, contrary to the democratic foundations, support radicalisation or terrorist recruitment. It is also necessary to change the legislation governing the right of assembly and paragraphs of the law on sedition.”

Interior Ministers of the 16 German federal states plan to discuss this issue. According to the country’s intelligence agency Verfassungsschutz.

“At the moment, both in Germany and in the international arena, Salafism acts as a dynamic Islamist movement,” (Verfassungsschutz ).

Salafism advocates a clear commitment to the principles of the Qur’an and the early Islamic period between the 8th and 10th centuries. The aim is to change the Salafis public order and the law of the state in accordance with the values of Salafism, which are considered God-given.

Adherents of Salafism receive large financial benefits from Middle Eastern regimes and organizations, in addition, Salafists provide a legal and institutional support from Muslim countries, as well as a guarantee of political asylum. Salafis are pursuing a policy of outright terror, killing and intimidating the traditional clergy, but parallel to this, they capture and strengthen their position in the formal system of Islam and Islamic education, they bribe officials and directly affect many management decisions. They managed to create a whole network of media on the web to promote their ideas. In general, the Salafis today – are the most active and the most passionate religious and political power.

Salafism. An example; Russian Muslims

Recently, in the Russian Federation,to use an example,  there is a trend displaying growing influence of the ideas of Salafism, especially in regions with a Muslim population ( Salafis refer to themselves as followers of the political and ideological trends among Sunni Muslims, one of the areas of Salafism is a Wahhabi) .

Various currents of Salafism enjoy considerable support from influential political circles and intelligence services of several Arab countries, including Saudi Arabia. To spread the ideas of Salafism, they use religious education programs , education and charity. A distinctive feature of the Salafi ideology is unquestioning obedience in religious and everyday life via specific preachers. This approach allows the manipulation of the masses toward political interests. In fact, the Salafi ideology – an ideology of groups, sects, for political purposes .

The characteristic features of the Salafi understanding of Islam are :

Formalism , the desire to unify the detailed way of life of all Muslims.

Intolerance of dissent , the promotion of violence against dissenters

Highlighting the ideas of jihad , interpreted as a struggle against all that is contrary to Salafi installations

The desire for the destruction of other ideological systems , for world domination

Active use of organized forms of political and social activities, methods and techniques of psychological warfare

The division of society into Muslims and  infidels who constitute the opposition ( true Muslims are considered only adherents of Salafism)

These items feature Salafist ideology of orthodox Sunni Islam. There are theological differences, in particular Wahhabism . It is Salafism , in one form or another, that became the ideology of  fundamentalist  (Islamic ) socio- political movements that are ubiquitous in the Muslim world. The radical wing of the movement has become a base for international terrorism. Independent extremist groups who came into conflict with the leading Salafist preachers are closely associated with the ruling elite of the Arabian Peninsula (known in Russian names : Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen , the former Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia, Shaykh Ibn Baaz, Shaykh Syrian Fauzal bin Fauzal). The followers of these religious leaders actively engaged in an ideological struggle with radical groups. Supporters of extremist groups called supporters of Shaykh Ibn Uthaymeen , Ibn Baaz , Fauzalya bin Fauzalya etc.  ‘madhalistami’, named for the Saudi scholar Shaykh al – Madhav . In Russia the name of Imam Madhav is still little known. At the same time, domestic experts on Islam believe that today, is backed by the ruling circles of Saudi Arabia’s efforts so to increase the impact of the ideological leaders of the Salafi internationally, particularly through the promotion of information and psychological warfare with international of radical groups.

According to reports, among the followers of overseas part of the Salafist currents have come from Russia, particularly from; Dagestan, Kabardian, Tatar origin, and are actively trying to import these ideas into the Russian Federation . In this case, with the following objectives :

– To save the Salafi ideology from being compromised in the eyes of the faithful , denouncing the criminal activities of terrorist groups ;

– To shift from armed jihad, to jihad information and psychological propaganda aimed at Islamisation by salafist sample ;

– To enter into the confidence of the authorities of both Muslim and non-Muslim countries with the intention of gaining new opportunities to spread its ideas ;

– Under the banner of Islam, to engage in the protection of believers in the political struggle .

During the revival of Islamic religiosity in Russia, was a lack of attention by government agencies, religious ignorance of society, infiltration from abroad of Salafi ideology and this had impact on the outlook of a significant number of believers. While with foreign support taking place within Russia there was formed influential advocacy resources for Salafism, established relations with foreign associates. However, in the development of radical movements, groups led their followers to face society as it is and the state legislature. Wahhabi  Jamaat , on the one hand, its extremism has discredited itself in the eyes of believers , on the other – it has been exposed to the powerful security forces.

An example of new forms of Salafi propaganda materials are published on the Internet site www.salafsalih.narod.ru. They are Russian translations from Arabic or written in Russian, but structurally the same as the Arabic original . In the contents are clearly visible characteristics of the Salafi ideology. At the same time, advocacy efforts are aimed at discrediting those forms of political and armed struggle, which are used today in the Muslim world beyond the control of the authorities of  fundamentalist  groups. The new forms emphasize the desirability of creating illegal political organisations in the countries of the infidel  because it could lead to reprisals against Muslims.

In this case, the denial methods to combat extremist groups is not of a fundamental nature. Propaganda directed against the pathos of specific movements, personalities. This is due to the fact that such propaganda is conducted primarily in the struggle for influence in the Muslim world. Ideological confrontation, the terrorist jihad  is purely tactical. In other circumstances, Salafi ideology can not only justify, but also initiate destabilizing processes. Because of the basic tenets of their ideology, Salafism is aimed at the development of the Muslim community in religious intolerance, the desire for isolation and confrontation.

In ideological terms, Salafism most effectively resists enlightened approaches from the standpoint of traditional Islamic theology. Inherent to this approach, objectivity precludes the use of the authority of traditional theologians selfish political interests. The enlightened humanist tradition of Islam recently in the Russian information field is formed and strengthened, but has not yet taken a dominant position in the sector representation of the true Islamic creed.

The divine text of the Qur’an. An example; Germany

Is the Qur’an a dangerous book that should not fall into the hands of young people, as required by some outraged observers in the distribution of free copies of the Qur’an in various German cities? Represented by radical Muslim fundamentalist a way of reading the Qur’an can show if the Koran actually advocates brutal corporal punishment, the suppression of women and the hatred of democracy. Although most Muslims consider the Qur’an very differently, not as a legal code or reference to the action, but as a symbol of spiritual guidance or identity, all the louder in the debate regarding the political correctness of the Qur’an.

No book tells about this clearer than the new work by Katayun Amirpur, ‘Rethinking Islam. Jihad for democracy, freedom and the rights of women.’ Do not need the gift of foresight to predict that her book, which presents the views of leading reformers of Islam , will become a reference in modern treatment of the Qur’an . In Rethinking Islam, the status of Jihad (religious war) is seen in a new way in the revolutionary interpretation of the U.S. theologian, activist for the Protection of Human Rights Amina Wadud (Amina Wadud).

Between these two poles , a new theological reading of the Qur’an and the so-called liberation theology, provided primarily by expert women , and there is an interpretation of the Qur’an. It begins with an extensive review of contemporary thinkers , enjoyable language describes the six portraits especially important and influential scholars of the Koran. Two of them , an Iranian scholar Mohammad Modzhtahed Shabestari (Mohammed Mojtahed Shabestari) and Abdolkarim Soroush (Abdolkarim Soroush) – Shiites and who belong to the camp with a strong philosophical component, and therefore in terms of certainly less dogmatic stiffness. The other authors are Sunnis – expelled from Pakistan; Fazlur Rahman (Fazlur Rahman), who studied in Canada , which affected its modern interpretation of the Koran, and who emigrated from Egypt, Nasr Hamid Abu Zayd (Nasr Hamid Abu Zaid), from a methodological point of view, the most modern scholar of the Qur’an , and two  militant  women from the modern image of Muslim women researchers – African-American Amina Wadud (Amina Wadud) and expelled from Pakistan and living in the United States Asma Barlas (Asma Barlas).

The fact that when reading a fascinating book Amirpur seems so natural – that Muslims in their efforts to modernize Islam certainly adhere to the Qur’an, it is not a very self evident. This focus has arisen due to pushes from the west and is a fracture of the tradition. Because, according to tradition, the Qur’an is not a natural reference text for the definition of Islamic norms, and different legal literature of Islam.

In order to understand the amazing concentration on the Qur’an, one needs to look back at the past 150 years of the history of Islam. In efforts to modernize Islam, Muslims originated from the mid-19th century, when multilateral contacts with the culture of modern Europe pushed the educated Muslims to rethink usual norms and values . Getting missionaries in the Middle East with the practice of circulation in Europe with sacred writings led to the view that the current practice is outdated. The Qur’an is traditionally considered a sea, limitless in its interpretation. His interpretation of the judgment can connect, separated from each other and be even contradictory. To do this, one can seek the assistance of the Prophet, which will raise the community to virtue. The Prophet Muhammad said, quote; In my community disagreement lies the divine mercy.

This relaxed attitude to the Qur’an is out of balance, while in contact with the Protestant reading of the Bible. As before, Islam is now the only one text without the accompanying traditions  and should be decisive for believers. Only one single way of reading the Qur’an may be true . A large variety of different interpretations are a hindrance. Understanding the Qur’an was united . It was a new ambiguity with which it has acquired the function of a set of laws. The Qur’an and Sharia law should not now determine the current standards . The old religious orders, especially for the treatment of women did not have to be adjusted or new interpretation of existing laws or fatwas . Adjustment should occur through a new interpretation of the Qur’an.

This view is dominant, as the introduction to the book Katayun Amirpur , until today in treatments in which the aim is to release its authority from the Qur’an as the literal voice of the Lord. This new awareness that the Qur’an should not be taken literally, new interpretations are fundamentally different from the fundamental views of Muslims of our time, who use the Qur’an for evil purposes as alleged arch enemy to man the rules – for example , with respect to the suppression of women, the legitimisation of violence against dissidents or non-believers .

In the center of the debate

That is, new commentators are on the defensive . The Qur’an, the document of the 7th century, was at the center of debates on contemporary norms and human rights. The grotesque fact. What a Jew or a Christian is today regarded as the key biblical texts that are in the interest of modern standards should be re- interpreted ? Stage interpretation of the sacred text in its own way long over. Everything has calmed down, that the biblical texts contradict the taste of time. A similar calm prevailed in Islam at a stage preceding the present, where the traditional explanation of the Qur’an allowed the coexistence of a variety of interpretations , and where Islamic law was too strict.

Today commentators believe, as if a new reading of the Qur’an as the perceived non literal text must still be made up. This delay Amirpur connects with a theological decision 9th century, when the Qur’an was given the status of perpetual text that should be taken literally. Those interpreters of the Qur’an that oppose the transfer of historical blind prescriptions in our time are critical in this dogmatic decision.

This aspect – a special burden for the interpreters of the Qur’an with feminist views that advocate for women’s equality. It is about Amina Wadud and Asma Barlas. Work Wadud referred to as ‘permissible to Muslim men to beat their wives? ‘ It appeals to the chapter 4.34 , which allows , under certain conditions, the right of men to beat their wives – usually conceived as a result of women’s lack of rights in the 7th century as a mitigation measure . Wadud believes that the meaning of the word ‘ beat ‘ should be avoided. Barlas talks about the elimination of patriarchy from the Qur’an. God can speak to people only in human terms.

Other reformers are trying to systematically analyze the Qur’an with respect to its spiritual component , fundamental ethical orientation . The most famous of them , who died in 2010, the Egyptian Nasr Hamid Abu Zaid . His main thesis is today the basis of interpretations of researchers who want to make the Qur’an clear and fruitful for our time. Abu Zaid believes that even the divine speaker in his speech to the people to use their cultural code . God can only talk to people on a human, that is, caused by the history of the language. That is the Qur’an in its form is human speech . Timeless message of God can not simply be historically conditioned way of text in which God designed your message in the 7th century .

Without calling into question the revelation of the Qur’an , Abu Zaid shares the supernatural communication of God to the Prophet Muhammad and the sermon, and explains it as an inexplicable from a scientific point of view. What can be learned , so it is only the Prophet’s inquiry to his audience. The fact that the Prophet took were not unambiguous words , and the non-verbal inspiration, which at first was translated into human language to reach the audience. Although Abu Zaid their interpretation of prophetic revelation is in line with a group of philosophers of the 9th century, he was accused of apostasy, through moving away from Islam and he was forced to emigrate.

Abu Zaid advocates of modern linguistic methods in the interpretation of the Qur’an , which the Prophet turns to the audience. However, he is far from being able to reduce the value of the Qur’an to the subject of scientific processing . Their religious part it builds on the symbolic spaces of the Qur’an, which are assembled in the old mystical interpretations. Both parts are incompatible. Over the hermeneutical ** gap between the historical, textual and linguistic parts and studying the Qur’an as a witness and spokesman of spiritual experience, there is no bridge. Amirpur ends his book with the words, ‘From us, Muslims, depends on how to make the best of our religion. We are required to prepare the ground here.’

The merit of the authors; we learn a lot of the commentators of the Qur’an , who are paid for their work  by a great price, some of them even threatened with loss of life. To know about them and their young followers who today are so many in the Islamic world is very important. Because if their success will be uncontrollable, then they need solidarity and synergy with Western scientists.

** Hermeneutics : The methodology of interpretation concerned with problems that arise when dealing with meaningful human actions and the products of such actions, most importantly texts. As a methodological discipline, hermeneutics offers a toolbox for efficiently treating problems of the interpretation of human actions, texts and other meaningful material. Hermeneutics has a long tradition as the set of problems it addresses have been prevailent throughout human life, and have repeatedly and consistently called for consideration.

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WAHHABISM

SAUDI ARABIA. PART I

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The policy of appeasement with regard to Saudi Arabia is no longer working

Back in the early fall no one could have predicted that Saudi Arabia, which has always been considered the closest ally of the U.S. in the Arab world , will allow himself such liberties . And it would have seemed improbable, the idea that a sharp rebuke to Washington we will hear from the mouth of Prince Bandar .

For its proximity to the Bush family, Saudi prince was given the nickname  Bandar Bush . He was closely associated with the American establishment, was the largest shareholder of the companies in the U.S. and controlled delivery of weapons to Riyadh (his father Prince Sultan has long served as minister of defense, and the multi-billion dollar deal that turned Saudi Arabia into the largest importer of U.S. arms, began Bandar’s main source of enrichment) .

It is believed that Bandar has been one of the main initiators of the aggressive U.S. policy in the Middle East. According to rumors, he is not only littered with money on Capitol Hill, but also gave luxury gifts influential American women. It is said that in return for the military campaign in Iraq, he gave Rice a diamond necklace worth half a million dollars. The same  token honored by Hillary Clinton after the overthrow of Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi.

Of course, in Washington, Bandar always placed with the Republicans who represent the interests of big oil companies. In private conversations he has repeatedly accused Obama of “weakness ” and ” inability to think strategically,” and the U.S.  allow themselves even more harsh statements against the incumbent. In recent years, Bandar has developed a frenzied activity, his personal plane, painted in the colors of the team , Dallas Cowboys  was hovering between the capitals of the world, and the prince struggled to cobble together a coalition, which would impact on Damascus. When it became clear that his efforts were fruitless, Bandar took it very badly .

For seventy years, Saudi Arabia was considered the most loyal ally of the U.S. in the Middle East. Relations between the two countries governed by the so-called ‘pact Quincy’ from 1945 , according to which America ensures military- political security of the Saudis .  Oil company Aramco supplies oil the United States ( it supplies 10% of the black gold flowing into the U.S. market , and provides America’s energy security by preventing the collapse of world oil prices) . Not accidentally, the influential members of the American elite, such as the Dulles brothers and Prescott Bush , has traditionally defended the interests of the kingdom in Washington. It should be noted also that in Saudi Arabia is the largest U.S. air base in the Persian Gulf, Prince Sultan . In addition , most of the Saudi assets comprising the astronomical sum 690 billion dollars , denominated in U.S. securities . And finally , Riyadh – one of the largest buyers of U.S. weapons (according to some, since 1973, the U.S. earned on the supply of arms to Saudi Arabia more than 600 billion dollars).

Only in the era of neo-cons in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf States have received weapons worth 20 billion and as noted by the deputy secretary of state in the Bush administration, Nicholas Burns, one of the main objectives of supply was to “give the Arab countries to strengthen defenses and thereby deterring Iranian expansion .” According to the center ,  in Arabic Persian Gulf was a huge number of military vehicles and craft , which were to be used in case of confrontation with Tehran.

After the 2009 White House took Barack Obama , the relationship with Riyadh only strengthened. Caustic comments in the media world has caused a scene when the Saudi monarch is hanging on the neck of the American president a heavy gold chain with a medal , and he bowed before him. The leader of the free world – noted then the magazine The Nation, – bowing to the head of state, which is considered one of the toughest theocratic dictatorships . Exclusive status of Saudi Arabia’s proven and Prince Turki statement that Saudi nuclear bomb will be the next day after it is tested Iran .

During the Arab Spring , U.S. policy  in Saudi Arabia – it was said, many remained an illusion that we are watching the big game  waged by the great powers , which have preserved over the world . However, in reality they wheeled numerous tails , just by saying the tails of that wagging the dog . And under the influence of the Saudis , Washington began to support the radical Salafis .

Saudi illness – said The American Thinker, – does not extend through the air , and through intensive human contact . And Obama probably contracted it from the current CIA director, John Brennan . Brennan is trained as a specialist in Riyadh , where he has long led the CIA’s mission and was able to make key connection in the royal court . He was appointed as adviser on anti-terrorism by Obama , Brennan readily agreed to the creation of secret U.S. bases on Saudi territory from U.S. drones were sent in the direction of Yemen, Somalia, Afghanistan and Pakistan. And since the destruction of the terrorists using drones in the age of Obama has become almost the main priority of intelligence, Brennan was the most suitable candidate for the post of head of the CIA. And no wonder, leading the administration, he promised to defend the interests of a key U.S. ally in the Middle East – Saudi Arabia.

Some political scientists have claimed that, as before the outbreak of the Second World War, the Western countries are pursuing a policy of appeasement, hoping to channel the energy of the militant aggressive bloc against the power that is perceived as a worst enemy: to incite radical Sunnis against Shiite Iran . You can then watch the battle and gradually revive its economy, profiting from the big war . “Obviously, – a year ago, Professor King’s College London Anatol Lieven said, ‘ that the United States implement the strategy, which is to forge alliance of Sunni autocrats , directed against the Iranian revolution. This strategy was developed in 1979 ‘.

The experts are increasingly talking about approaching the big Middle East war. On a map of the region , some countries are colored green , the other – in white , some are loyal to Iran , others – Saudi Arabia. West , until recently, was on the side Salafi monarchies of the Gulf, and, therefore, all the radical Sunnis. One should not have to wonder when American politicians found themselves in the same camp as the  Al- Qaeda  , whose leader , Ayman al -Zawahiri called on the lions of Syria,  reset heretical regime of Bashar al-Assad.  In Washington, just hope that the Gulf monarchies , finished with the Syrians, will go to war against Iran , – said the magazine ‘Nation’.  Sheikh Yusuf al- Qaradawi , – said Eugene Satanovskiy – a man who is called Sunni Khomeini  , said, ‘ Obama is ours, and he prayed to God just has to pretend to be a Christian. And of course, he will support us when we enter liberation campaign against Shiite heretics.

The Americans did not mind when the 2011 Gulf monarchies introduced their tanks to the Kingdom of Bahrain, where the uprising began by a pro-Iranian Shiite majority. They did not interfere, and the ascent to power of Prince Turki , who became gradually a key figure in Saudi politics. The creator of  Al Qaeda and the patron of the Wahhabis Turki was considered as an ideal candidate for the role of a great warrior of Allah, who cut off the head  of Iranian snake.

In spring 2011, a senior Saudi official said in an interview with the head of the administration of former U.S. Vice President Dick Cheney, John Hannah, expressed confidence that the regime change in Syria will have an extremely favorable to Riyadh and the Royal House of Saud . The King knows – he said – that nothing can weaken Iran, as the loss of Syria.  The instability in Syria, – said the magazine The Foreign Policy, – and as a consequence of the failure of the country’s independent foreign policy can lead to the establishment of the Saudi hegemony in the Syro- Palestinian region and increase the chances of a confrontation between Arabs and the Persians . That is why Riyadh became the chief patron of the radical Syrian opposition. (It should be noted that, apart from other things, the war in Syria allowed to divert young extremists from the Gulf countries , which , instead of overthrowing the local dynasty , went on a jihad against the Assad regime heretical) .

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WAHHABISM TWO

SAUDI ARABIA. PART II

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The causes of the disorder

For a long time, the United States supported Saudi allies in all endeavors. The first crack in relations between Washington and Riyadh appeared this summer after a military coup in Egypt. Saudis strongly supported the military government led by General Abdelfattah al- Sisi . This is not surprising . After all, al- Sisi did not stop at nothing to crush the movement Muslim Brotherhood , whose members are seen in Riyadh as dangerous rebels , ready to challenge the hereditary monarchies .

At the same time, the United States, which after the Arab Spring put on  Brothers  did not want to put up with the emergence of another military junta in Egypt. They stated that suspending joint maneuvers and refused to deliver to Cairo F-16 aircraft . This position does not find understanding in Riyadh. King Abdullah , without naming right of Americans warned all who would interfere in the internal affairs of Egypt and support the terrorists. The former U.S. ambassador to Saudi Arabia, Chas Freeman called this statement unprecedented and said that bilateral relations are in a much more serious crisis than the one that came after the U.S. decision to empower the Shiite parties in Iraq in 2005.

Saudis are struggling to seek changes for Washington’s position on the Egyptian issue and insisted on military intervention in Syria’s civil war. According to rumors, even the fact of the use of chemical weapons in Syria, which has allowed the U.S. to declare that the Assad regime  has passed the red line – this is the work of Saudi intelligence . When Obama announced that the U.S. will strike Damascus , in Riyadh was jubilance. Crown Prince Salman , who served as defense minister , to urgently interrupted his vacation and returned to the country to lead the Saudi army in a state of combat readiness.

But the Americans at the last minute  refused to intervene in the Syrian conflict. Moreover, they responded decisively by rejected the request of Riyadh to send to the Persian Gulf additional ships that would protect the oil-producing eastern province of Saudi Arabia against potential threats from Iran.

Deal with Iran

The Saudis took it as a rejection of the treaty obligation and the repetition of stories with Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak , who was considered one of the key partners of the U.S. in the Middle East, but was betrayed by them at the first opportunity.

“Once I talked about it with four-star American general Dayton – says Satanovskiy – a very high professional level , which in the Middle East know , they say, every dog . And he looked at me with sad eyes tired lemur, this person said a remarkable phrase , “You know, just in case we are all used to stay for two hands. And if all of a sudden what we hold , begins to fall, we frantically clutching at something else , if only two hands. Often we do it too early, and cling to something not very reliable . ” Perhaps , it is difficult to give a more precise definition of the foreign policy of the United States.”

As the honorary president of the Council on Foreign Relations, Leslie Gelb ,  in reality, neither Saudi Arabia nor any other Arab state ( or even Israel) do not understand Obama’s Middle East policy , which , according to them, is different pathological indecision and inability to develop a clear strategy.

Although it is possible that such a strategy does exist . According to some analysts , the United States , which will soon overcome the dependence on Middle East oil , plans to abandon its commitments in the region and recognize Iran as a regional superpower. The fact that the U.S. is preparing to create a new configuration of power in the Middle East, spoke at the beginning of the year , when the Obama foreign policy team formed of senators that are configured on a dialogue with Tehran.

As the experience of the war on terrorism , the strategic interests of the two countries have much in common . U.S. military operations in Afghanistan and Iraq, the Iranians were on hand , as a result were destroyed their main rivals in the region – Saddam Hussein and the  Taliban . Thanks to the American soldiers for the first time since the founding of the State of Iraq ‘s Shiite majority, which tends towards the former mother country , was in power in Baghdad. It was after that there was a version that the United States is secretly planning to replace its Sunni Shiite allies and partners , forming a pro-Iranian government in Iraq and Afghanistan, and preparing the ground for the revival of the alliance with Tehran. As noted by a former CIA agent in the Middle East, Robert Baer, “The United States should not interfere in Iran ‘s quest for dominance in Islam. Two states are ripe for an alliance modeled on that established at the time Nixon and Mao .”

Unlike the Saudis , the emir of Qatar, Tamim al -Thani, was trying to catch a new trend and to reconsider its position on Syria . He even offered to restore diplomatic relations with Damascus. And despite the fact that it is in the Qatari capital in November 2012 it was announced the establishment of the opposition National Coalition of Syrian revolutionary and opposition forces. Qatar, Syria supported the radical Islamic group  Muslim Brotherhood, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant  and  An- Nusra unexpectedly tries on the role of peacemaker. And in many ways this is done in defiance of Saudi Arabia, which clearly underestimates the impact of the emirate.  300 people and the TV station  – recently said Prince Bandar bin Sultan , speaking about Qatar.  However, the Doha tries to prove that a small country can play in politics – writes The New York Times. – If the Qataris will establish relations with Syria now , they will have the opportunity to stretch the gas pipeline to the Mediterranean Sea ( in fact, and for that they got engaged two years ago in the Syrian conflict).  Moreover, it was Doha will be the most reliable ally of Washington in the Gulf, because unlike Riyadh is not afraid of ” sharp turns .”

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WAHHABISM III

SAUDI ARABIA. PART III

Separation or a family quarrel ?

The Saudis can not be so easy to give in . According to a Middle East scholar at the Brookings Institution , Michael Doran , who at W. Bush served in the National Security Council , between the United States and Saudi Arabia apparently ran a black cat . These states have never had so many disagreements on key issues of the Middle East policy . A Saudi elite never had so openly expressed their discontent. Curse Bandar due to the fact that in Riyadh fear that with the departure of Assad United States wash their hands and give them to the mercy of Iran, Syria – the main geopolitical rival of the oil kingdom .

What can be opposed to Washington to Riyadh ? Saudis threaten to curtail cooperation with the CIA , to increase funding for the most radical rebel groups in Syria and begin supplying them heavy weapons , including man-portable air defense systems . In addition, the Saudi market may be impeded for the U.S. oil and military- industrial companies , which would be a heavy blow to the United States . Nothing prevents also convert part of the kingdom ‘s international reserves , which are kept in U.S. dollars into another currency . Is a serious threat and the transformation of Saudi Arabia in nuclear power. To achieve this, the Saudis do not need to create from scratch the nuclear industry . They can buy everything you need in Pakistan , with which Riyadh has traditionally enjoyed close relations .

According to some political analysts, Saudi Arabia, refused from the strategic alliance with Washington , is bound to attract the attention of China , which is in need of raw material resources . And given the fact that Beijing does not impose a business partner and their ideology are not in the habit of their substitute , it is likely that Riyadh will fall into its sphere of influence .

However, most experts believe that the Saudis talk about changing the strategic course – it’s a bluff .  We are seeing a family quarrel , not a divorce – says the magazine The Economist, – Saudi Arabia is simply wrong.  Let’s remember , the August visit Bandar bin Sultan in Moscow , whose goal was to scare the Americans: if you do not want to be with our interests , we will begin to develop a relationship with the Russian . It is this idea of trying to bring the Prince to Washington . However, in reality, – says Michael Doran – in Riyadh is no alternative to the United States. Interests of Russia and China is fundamentally contrary to the Saudi . Unlikely and the establishment of a caliphate – a powerful alliance of Arab States, which would conduct an independent Middle East policy.

Washington also does not want to break with the Saudis . After the statement Bandar Republicans pounced on Obama , declaring that he is following in the footsteps of Jimmy Carter, who lost in 1979 in Iran, which was previously a key American ally in the Middle East. “I can not condemn the actions of Riyadh – said Republican Senator and former U.S. presidential candidate John McCain – because they were the result of American weakness .” The Obama administration is trying to put a good face on a bad game . “We understand that Saudi Arabia is disappointed – said the Secretary of State , John Kerry, at a meeting of the” Friends of Syria ” in London. – However, we can assure her that Iran never gets nuclear weapons. So we simply do not hold , and soon America does abandon deal with Iran than enter into a bad deal . ” (Interestingly, due to the differences in the ranks of the ” Friends of Syria ” antiasadovskaya opposition has not given consent to participate in the peace conference ” Geneva -2 .” )

 On the onset of  the Saudi spring

If, however, the US -Saudi alliance falls apart, the United States is likely to begin to rock the boat , trying to arrange in the kingdom ” Arab Spring .” Back in 2003, one of the leading neocons , the former head of the CIA , James Woolsey , said: “The Americans on the side of those whom the royal family fears most – on the side of ordinary Saudi citizens.” “It is important to understand – said Satanovskiy – that the head of the government in Riyadh, there are people for whom Alzheimer’s – it’s a slight indisposition , is incapacitated elderly people – the sons of Abdul Azziz Ibn Saud . This is like in Russia is still ruled by the children Vladimir Ilyich Lenin. Such a gerontocracy not even dreamed of the Soviet Politburo in 80 years . ” According to statistics, the average age of a resident of Saudi Arabia – 19 years, and all the members of the Cabinet beyond the 60 . Young people , if they can find work in the kingdom, receive no more than $ 800 a month , while each of the prince (and they are in the realm of about 8 million) relies monthly maintenance from 5 to 250 thousand dollars. ” Although young people are taught to respect the royal family – said The Economist, – Saudis despise for his friendship with the Americans, irrepressible passion for luxury and carnal pleasures and cocaine .”

The official religion in Saudi Arabia is Salafism , or pure Islam . One of the versions of this direction is known to Wahhabism . And as noted by Western political scientists make Riyadh break with radical Sunnis – it is still a lot to offer at the time the Soviet party leaders to reject the communist ideology. However , according to The Washington Post, ” in spite of the strong bond of the royal family with the Sunni clergy , mass demonstrations in Saudi Arabia can only take place under the banner of struggle for the” purification of Islam. ” And it is not surprising that the conservative part of the elite expects to ride the revolutionary wave” . Unless, of course , the initiative will not intercept ” Al- Qaeda ” , which enjoys great popularity in the country and has long been calls to get rid of all the princes ( according to one version , the September 11 attacks were conceived by Osama bin Laden to harden the United States and to bring such way crash corrupt mode ) .

The Shiites have been known to make up 20% of the Saudi population and live in the oil-rich eastern provinces of the kingdom. Their pursuit will be enthusiastically received by the Sunni majority , since the country has long been a popular theory Shiite- American plot . ” Ordinary Saudis believe – wrote The Foreign Affairs, – that actually protects America Shiites . They call it the Union of idolaters and heretics who set out to destroy the true Islam.”

Many political scientists argue that in case of rupture with Washington in Saudi Arabia, which is divided between the two brothers – Saudis into feudal fiefdoms can start an armed conflict . (Do not forget that the second Saudi state was destroyed at the end of XIX century as a result of a fratricidal war. ) Chaos in the country, which is the main oil reservoir of the world, is likely to lead to an energy collapse. In connection with this recall crisis of 1973, when the cessation of oil supplies from the Persian Gulf has meant that the price of fuel has increased by four times.

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محمد بن عبد الوهاب (محمد بن عبد الوهاب، 1703 – 22 يونيو 1792) واعظ مسلم سني وباحث من نجد في وسط الجزيرة العربية الذي ادعى لتنقية الإسلام من قبل إعادته إلى ما كان يعتقد، كانت المبادئ الأصلية لهذا الدين السلف، وهذا هو أول ثلاثة أجيال من المسلمين، فهم ذلك. ورفض بعض الممارسات الإسلامية المشتركة التي يعتبرها البالغة إما الابتكار الديني (بدعة) أو الشرك (الشرك).
ساعد الاتفاق بن عبد الوهاب مع محمد بن سعود إلى إقامة إمارة الدرعية، والدولة السعودية الأولى، وبدأ تحالف وتقاسم السلطة الترتيب سلالي بين أسرهم التي لا تزال حتى يومنا هذا في المملكة العربية السعودية. آل الرماد الشيخ، عائلة دينية الرائدة في المملكة العربية السعودية، هم أحفاد ابن عبد الوهاب، وأدت تاريخيا العلماء في الدولة السعودية، التي تسيطر على المؤسسات الدينية والدولة.
حركته هي اليوم في كثير من الأحيان المعروفة باسم الوهابية، على الرغم من أن العديد من أتباع ترى هذا كمصطلح تحط التي صيغت من قبل خصومه، ويفضل أن يكون المعروف باسم الحركة السلفية. ويزعم كثير من العلماء أن السلفية مصطلح تنطبق على عدة أشكال المتزمت الإسلام في أجزاء مختلفة من العالم، في حين تشير الوهابية إلى المدرسة السعودية محددة، والتي ينظر إليها باعتبارها شكلا أكثر صرامة من السلفية. وكقاعدة عامة، كل الوهابيين هم السلفيون، ولكن ليس كل السلفيين هم الوهابيين “. ومع ذلك، والبعض الآخر يقول أنه في حين كانت الوهابية والسلفية في الأصل شيئين مختلفين، أصبحوا لا يمكن تمييزها عمليا في 1970s.

The Counter-Terrorism Library : Sections I – IV

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ADDENDUM

In Tunisia’s central Sidi Bouzid governorate, a lawyer – who preferred to remain clandestine – provided access to an official investigation document of Salafist leading figure –  Al-Khatib Al-Idrisi Al-Bukhari.

The two-page probe document from 28 January 2007 is in the possession of the interior ministry’s state security department, and is comprised of Al-Idrisi’s responses to questions from Tunisian investigators.

Al-Idrisi’s responses speak to different stages of his life from the time he was born in August 1955 in Sidi Bouzid to the moment he embraced Salafist principles in the mid-1970s.

During the investigation, the extremist cleric admits that his years in Saudi Arabia, which began in 1985, played the most significant role in shaping his political and religious orientations.

“I started being committed to praying in 1976, and I frequently visited the Kaaba after I moved to Saudi Arabia in 1985 to be a nurse at King Faisal hospital in Mecca.”

“At the Kaaba, I attended religious sessions calling for the adoption of Salafist thought, which considered jihad as a commitment for all Muslims; this is what persuaded me to believe in the above mentioned way of thinking.”

Al-Idrisi, blind in one eye, is regarded as the most famous Salafist scholar for Tunisian jihadists. He learned his thoughts about Islam in Saudi Arabia from Bin Baz, one of the most prominent Salafist scholars of the 20th century.

Al-Idrisi’s Salafist movement has always been a target of Ben Ali’s regime. Al-Idrisi was arrested in 2006 after his followers clashed with security forces, facing a two-year imprisonment sentence on charges of issuing fatwas that covered up terrorist activities.

He was put under house arrest until 2011 when Tunisia’s transitional government issued a general amnesty for all anti-Ben Ali political prisoners. 

The Tunisian radical sheikh has signified a key, religious-ideological reference to Ansar Al-Sharia group. Note that Al-Sharia attacked the US embassy in 2012, and has implemented militant operations in the Mount Chaambi region, close to the border with Algeria.

The US State Department has listed three groups called Ansar Al-Sharia as separate foreign terror organisations and targeted their leaders with sanctions. Two of them, according to other sources, are based in Libya, while the third is in Tunisia.

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WAHHABISM AND SALAFISM