Secret Intelligence Service
Mental and Physical. Page V
Operative Field Skills
“You know you are truly alive when you are living among lions.”
Karen Blixen. (1885 – 1962)
This is intended as a continuation of Mental and Physical. It might be better for the reader to consider what we say here to be a converging of some of what has been learned to date, and so, within the most demanding and specific of all skill areas; that of operational field skills.
By presenting this way and to be brief, the reader will have the opportunity to peer directly into the activities of counter-terror operatives and so, with regard to the various and multifaceted requirements, the challenges, including different, often extremely hostile environmental conditions that are encountered.
This is a very serious issue, a consequence of the reality of the world situation and in no way should attract the never grown up, or similar who are prone to living out fantasy and likewise, animal hunters who deserve much more than a merely bad day. Therefore we must consider what to put here.
We can try and make the world a safer place, but we cannot change the collective nature of the many who, in our opinion, are incompatible with life as it should be lived, those who share delusion coupled with a propensity for cruelty of epic degree. By saying this and unfortunately, nothing profound is revealed.
Perhaps the reader will acknowledge that the United Kingdom is by far the most rewarding and safest country in the world and take the opportunity to look into moving here. If you have come to like our Unit and all to whom we are joined with, then it has to be said that there are many here of same.
We are one family. You could say we watch the door, we ensure that tomorrow will follow today and all that is a dire threat to collective beauty does remain unknown.
Adversitate. Custodi. Per Verum
The passion for victory burns within each of us. The will to win is a matter of training.
The method of victory is a matter of honour
OPERATIONAL FIELD SKILLS. (C-IV)
EXPLORATION IN SHARPLY BROKEN MOUNTAINOUS WOODLAND AREAS
In sharply crossed mountainous woodland, reconnaissance is more expedient to conduct during the morning and evening twilight, a dense fog, morning fog from the rising sun, and to search for smaller, than usual, composition by reconnaissance groups.
Combat experience shows that the search in the mountains at night is ineffective, for the reason that nights in the mountains are darker than on the plain. In addition, the complexity of the orientation and the sharp intersection of the terrain make it difficult for the intelligence team to reach the planned points. All this requires a high degree of preparedness of personnel.
However, the operational situation can make it possible to conduct a search at night (and this often happens), but this requires irreproachable training and the highest degree of training of the operatives of the special group. Miracles do not happen. For night work and night travel on rough terrain, one must have a trained sense of space, orientation, a specific sense of navigation and a developed sense of time.
If it is necessary to conduct a reconnaissance search at night in the mountainous woodland, preparations for it are carefully conducted during the day. The route is prepared on the basis of intelligence surveillance, topography, aerial photography, panoramic photographs and work on the layout of the area.
The route in scale and in small details appears visually in different angles, is remembered by internal ‘dark memory’ and thus fits into consciousness.
When driving at night, one should choose dark lowlands so as not to be projected against the background of the night sky (stars), and adhere to the lunar shadow. The route of movement should be chosen so that it coincides with landmarks that are clearly visible at night or are projected against the sky by high local objects.
In clear nights and in the forest, and in the mountains during the movement one can navigate the polar star. The direction of motion can be determined from other stars, but it should be borne in mind that in an hour they move about 15 °.
When driving at night on rough terrain, so as not to get lost, the operatives stick to the chain with a rope with knots. The necessary signals are transmitted along it. A strong rope with knots is a very useful thing for almost any groups of special forces, and it should be in gear.
During actions at night in the mountains, specific reconnaissance in motion is conducted only after careful observation in the night vision device and no less attentive listening. The movement is made only after a careful scan ahead of the lying path in the night vision device. It is forbidden to move beyond the boundaries of the scanned section. Before the boundary of the viewed place, the next stop, observation and listening point is planned. The movement occurs from such an item and until the next item scanned. Such short stops at night in the mountains must be done very often. At night and in conditions of reduced visibility, the intelligence group should strictly observe the uttermost noiselessness, do not smoke, do not light the lights. All commands and signals transmit only in a whisper, or pulling at the rope. It is necessary to avoid the movement along the ridges of heights, so as not to ‘shine’ against the sky. Even at night it is necessary to crouch and hide behind local objects so as not to be seen by the enemy in night vision devices.
With the approach of night, audibility in the mountains and in the forest due to increased humidity and air density increases. At night, the noise of the shanty works produced by the enemy can be heard a kilometer in a half or two or two. For ourselves it is valuable, because in the daytime shovel works no one will lead. But the noise during your movement will also be heard quite far. The snow creaking under the boots is heard in the mountains for four hundred meters. So that the snow does not creak, the soles are wrapped with rags.
The technique of movement in the mountains is a separate, extensive, and demanding intense workout topic.
Try not to make noise in movement. When moving on rock screes with a foot, feel for a firm place. When stumbling, do not try to stay on your feet – all the same you will crash with a terrible noise. If you feel that you have suffered, and the place is relatively flat, and you do not pull to the cliff, fall softly and noiselessly, bend your legs, group and fall on your side, place your hands and feet so as not to roll under the escarpment.
During night in the wooded area, keep your arm bent to the elbow, in front of you, in order to feel the branch or stretch in time.
During the movement at stops for observation and listening rest on your knees. So the body rests, and at the same time the hearing does not relax. Place mittens under your knees. Do not sit down. It relaxes and reduces the overall combat readiness.
At the halt, there must be a pair of watchmen on each side, and, according to tactical necessity, it is possible (and sometimes necessary) To set up secret posts with circular surveillance. Rest – sleep in pairs, change – after 2 hours. If necessary, the reconnaissance group creates a hiding place, one or several, to move lightly, maneuver-ably and quickly, and replenish carry stock from hiding places.
The reconnaissance team carries out the task by studying traces, observation, ambushes and raids, sabotage, and also by exhausting the enemy. When encounters with small groups of the enemy are captured and interrogated prisoners, if this is not possible, the enemy is destroyed from the noiseless weapon.
OPERATIONAL FIELD SKILLS
EXPLORATION IN SHARPLY BROKEN MOUNTAINOUS WOODLAND AREAS.
(C-IV) Secret Intelligence Service
OPERATIONAL FIELD SKILLS. (C-IV)
DRINKING REGIME AND FLOW OF VITAMINS AT HIGH LOADS
The consumption of vitamins increases with increased loads. The lack of them leads to excessive fatigue. Therefore, with increased nervous and physical exertion, the intake of vitamins into the body should be increased.
Onions and garlic can not be consumed in combat operations. In such conditions, the most valuable source of vitamins is ordinary bee honey. A spoonful of honey in the morning and a spoon in the evening will perfectly fill the deficit of vitamins.
On the drinking regime one should pay special attention. This, as shown by the practice of recent years, even seasoned operatives have a vague notion.
To prevent the thirst on the ‘march’, it is necessary that water is retained in the body. With this task, can only cope with salt. Therefore, in order to keep water in the morning, you must eat something salty [suited soup on a salted bouillon cube].
In the morning you have to drink plenty of water. In the afternoon, do not drink anything. It will be very unpleasant, but not fatal. If it becomes absolutely unbearable, rinse your mouth with water from a jar, do not swallow water, but spit it out. This is done both in the hot desert and in the ascent in the mountains.
If a person in the desert or on a mountain pass begins to drink, he / she immediately begins to sweat. Together with sweat, salt leaves the body. As a result, water is withdrawn even more intensively, which leads to debilitating perspiration and causes even more thirst. It turns out a vicious circle – the more a person drinks, the more he / she wants it.
In addition to the fact that erratic water intake during the running day does not quench one’s thirst, it increases sweating, which leads to the elution of vital salts from the body, which harms the heart, causing it to empty the excess volume of liquid. Therefore, we must endure until the evening – on the evening one can drink in plenty. In the morning and in the evening one can drink also because during these hours the load on the heart is the least.
The thirst for a march is well satisfied with all the same mint or sweet and sour candies, dried apricots and prunes. Slow absorption of these products increases salivation and prevents dry mouth. If a particular march or ascent to a mountain is made not in a diaphoretic but in a calm regime, you can spill 2-3 drops from the jar from time to time, but not often, but the water should be slightly salted.
Salt should be consumed about 15 grams per day. The physiological norm of salt on a heavy march is 20-25 g per day.
It should be remembered that melt water and water in mountain streams does not contain salts necessary for the body.
To consume snow in kind in the form or suck ice is forbidden – it does not quench thirst, but the cold is guaranteed. Eating snow as such causes a very unpleasant phenomenon – the so-called arctic thirst.
If you have to eat snow, do not eat it in a natural loose state. This leads to dehydration of the body. Snow should be rolled in the form of a sausage and eaten carefully, very slowly and gradually.
Drink water in very small sips.
Attention. Drinking water does not immediately eliminate thirst. Water should pass through the esophagus, stomach, get into the intestine and only there to begin to be absorbed and enter the blood. All this takes 10-15 minutes. Therefore, before reaching the water, drink a little at first and often.
With operational search and other operational and combat measures, the food with hot food is obtained on a two-off basis according to the principle: breakfast and lunch.
Haste leads to a decrease in vigilance and caution. Dullness reduces the level of operational observation. All of which leads to ambush.
OPERATIONAL FIELD SKILLS
DRINKING REGIME AND FLOW OF VITAMINS AT HIGH LOADS
(C-IV) Secret Intelligence Service
HOW TO SLEEP LESS – POLYPHASIC SLEEP. (C-I)
Seminar. Extract. Harrogate. 12 11 2017
Some time ago I had an opportunity to try in practice a polyphasic sleep.
Polyphasic sleep is a special technique of sleep, which allows you to reduce sleep time to 2-4 hours per day.
The main idea is that instead of sleeping at once 6-8 hours in a row, sleeping several times a day in small portions.
There are two main modes of this dream:
(I) 6 times for 20 minutes every 4 hours (‘Everywoman’) <<
(II) Once at night 1.5 – 3 hours and then 3 times for 20 minutes during the day (‘Every other woman’)
I practiced polyphasic sleep for two months, after which I switched to normal mode. Since then it’s been about six months and I want to share my impressions.
First of all, I was wondering what would happen if I had 4 additional hours a day. Will I be able to do more and where will I spend my time. Well, in general, it was interesting to check whether a person can do 2-4 hours of sleep per day.
Perhaps, if I did not lose the regime and did not miss periods of sleep, I would not feel any discomfort. qqI can say that I slept even better than under normal conditions. Another thing, if for some reason you had to miss any of the 20-minute periods of sleep.
After that, I had to get to the bed in the form of a zombie. The most amazing thing is that, as if strongly not like to sleep, 20 minutes of sleep always completely restored my strength. qqAs for more cases that I wanted to manage to do, this did not happen. In order to more time to do, you do not need free time, but the ability to use it correctly.
In extreme situations, when you need to prepare for the exam in two or three days or urgently complete a project, such a regime can help. But in normal conditions I have a tendency to spend free time on any little nonsense. Although, this is also important.
From two modes I decided to choose (I) Everywoman. First, with this mode, the intervals of wakefulness are longer. And secondly, only one of the 20 minute periods of sleep I had to sleep in the office.
I slept 3 hours from 2-5 am, then 20 minutes before leaving for work at 8 am, then 20 minutes at 13 hours in the afternoon and 20 minutes at 20 hours in the evening. Total obtained 4 hours of sleep.
Everywoman, strangely enough, it sounds easier, despite the fact that the total amount of sleep in this mode (Everywoman) is less.
The fact is that the 3-hour sleep period has two phases of deep sleep, after which it is rather difficult to wake up.
It is necessary to select quite accurately the time to wake up during the phase of rapid eye movement. In addition, the brain is more difficult to get used to without deep sleep (or to be content with a small amount of it).
I knew it and was mentally ready to experience difficulties. But, as they say, the blow came from an unexpected side. My brain quickly got used to all kinds of alarms. I even tried to sleep in my socks and put a mobile phone, put on a vibrating bell, into one of my socks, so I could wake up while I took it out and turned it off.
So in fact, no. My brain managed not waking up, controlling the body so that I turned off the alarm and did not even remember it. But after a 20-minute sleep I woke up always easily, sometimes even before the alarm clock ringing.
The most frequent question that colleagues asked me when they found out that I was researching polyphasic sleep – how do you sleep at work?
Honestly, I do not see what kind of problem there can be for a person who works in an office with a reasonable team and adequate superiors. (Sure – not serious, but in my case it was research).
It is enough to explain to colleagues the reason for their daytime sleep and they will even ask all people entering the office to be quieter, of course. I just leaned back in my chair, put on headphones, and slept.
I can assure you that two to three days after the practice begins, you will be able to sleep anywhere and in any position, and an office chair will be as comfortable for you as a sofa or a bed.
What else I would like to note? Subjectively, time began to go slower. A week passed, and it seemed to me that a month had passed. Especially it was felt on the weekend, because of what they seemed very long.
Another positive thing was that I had time that I could truly devote myself to. At five in the morning very few people who do not sleep, no one talks, does not write and does not call on the mobile. At first I felt like an alien – it was so unusual to realise that everyone is still asleep, and your day has already begun.
After two months of polyphasic sleep, I decided to switch to normal mode. First of all, because such a regime strongly hinders close people. I never managed to create conditions under which I could wake up at 5 am and not wake anyone up. And besides, I found out everything I wanted and I did not have any motivation to continue.
If you are thinking of trying polyphasic sleep yourself, then note that such experiments are contraindicated to people with any sleep disorders. For example, if you fall asleep badly or anxiously sleep. If you have a sound and healthy sleep, and you love to experiment, then try. After all, 8 hours of sleep every day is 4 months of sleep per year. But this is longer than the summer holidays, when you went to school.
Experiments conducted during which one slept six times a day for 20-30 minutes – Polyphasic Sleep. The advantages that polyphasic sleep gives in comparison with usual, monophasic sleep are more hours in the day when you can do what you love, about 30-40 extra hours a week.
Polyphasic sleep is when you sleep several times a day for short periods of time. For example, 4 times a day for 30 minutes: from 0:00 to 0:30, from 6:00 to 6:30, from 12:00 to 12:30, from 18:00 to 18:30 – such polyphasic sleep practiced by Benjamin Franklin, so I am informed.
HOW TO SLEEP LESS – POLYPHASIC SLEEP
Seminar. Extract. Harrogate. 12 11 2017
(C-I) Secret Intelligence Service.
FIGHTING DEUCES – IN THREES. (C-IV)
When in combat, one should act with’ fighting deuces’, this is better and more reliable – with threes, so to cover each other. Whenever possible, hand grenades and grenades should be used more.
The fire of all available fire weapons should be concentrated on any source of resistance. If there are three escaping enemies in front of you and only one who is lying behind a shelter and shooting, then first of all you need to destroy the one who shoots, not being tempted by a lighter and larger goal.
To hide from a nearby hand grenade, you must fall face down, head towards the grenade (if there is no helmet), cover your hands, open your mouth (so that the eardrums are not damaged by the blast wave). The first, who saw the grenade, gives the signal; “Grenade right (left, front, back)”.
With a surprise attack of the enemy, fall for the nearest shelter, while being ready for battle. Experience shows that fighters do not do this. Some start shooting, staying in place and being a good target for the enemy. Others – fall behind the shelter, forgetting to take off the machine from their shoulders, and then start fumbling, trying to get the weapon in an uncomfortable position, and not being able to fire. There are those who fall into a state of tremor (fear, trembling, lack of reaction to the situation and the team). Therefore, the special operative, in fact all soldiers should be taught in such a way that if they get under a massive fire, they are NOT lost.
FIGHTING DEUCES – IN THREES. (C-IV)
Secret Intelligence Service. Operative Field Skills.
ROUTE RECONNAISSANCE / EXPLORATION. (C-IV)
If there is time and opportunity, it is advisable to make a preliminary reconnaissance of the route beforehand. At the same time, it is possible to study the paths and approaches to the original object carefully, with careful observation of these approaches from different points, because in the presence of closed areas and invisibility zones, when observing from one observation post, it is impossible to identify unexpected obstacles on the reconnaissance route. In the mountainous woodland, the sharp intersection and closeness of the landscape, the hidden approaches to the desired object, at first glance, more than enough. However, when carefully studying them, it is established which of them are blocked and impassable, what mines are set, and in what directions it is tactically advantageous for the enemy to expose the secret posts.
The enemy can be based both in small settlements. So also in natural masks that save from electronic surveillance devices – in ravines, gorges, hollows, over precipices and back slopes of heights, behind embankments, dams and other irregularities in the relief. In the forest, the enemy should be found not far from water sources.
Exploration of settlements in the mountains is conducted from nearby tactical heights. Before this, it is necessary to carefully explore these heights themselves, so as not to run into the defensive lines of the enemy – for the defense of the settlement the enemy will seek to equip firing points on the surrounding heights of the altitude.
When approaching settlements on the guerrilla side, the windward side and open spaces should be avoided. Otherwise you will feel the dogs – they know their own, and on the others they will raise a hubbub.
Pay special attention to the abnormal silence and the lack of traffic in the settlements, where this movement has always been. Hidden and patiently watching this phenomenon for a while, you can find interesting things – haze from cigarettes, steam from the mouth, various kinds of stirring, smells and sounds, familiar and unfamiliar.
You cannot go into abandoned houses – as a rule, they are mined. You cannot eat food left by the enemy food – it always (always!) will be poisoned. Food in war is a particularly valuable thing, and it’s just that they do not leave it.
The task of the special group at all times is the search for caches. At the same time, it is possible to establish the production of earthworks for the arrangement of caches by scattered fresh or dried ground, sliced strata of turf and places on the grass carpet, where these layers are cut. The production of such works produces traces of horse carts or pack animals, on which the excavated land was exported and building materials were brought in. In the wooded area, caches are very often arranged under large stumps or charred trees. They are very firmly on the large roots, which form a roof-overlap. The ventilation takes place through a hollow in a charred tree. Through the same hollow, a periscope is advanced to observe the terrain.
The duties of the special group also include a very unpleasant, but necessary work – the excavation of graves. Exhumed corpses are described, photographed, carefully searched, documents, letters, notes, photographs, etc. are taken from them. – very often they contain invaluable information.
Approaches to the guerrilla base are carefully controlled by disguised secret posts. Therefore, one should not hurry up here. Examine the terrain and local objects carefully, without giving out or unmasking yourself. Local objects – bushes, stones, stumps must be counted and remember how many of them there were and how many are available now, and how all this is located. Before approaching a local object, carefully examine it from afar. Try to find any signs that indicate the presence of the enemy. The local subject is, if possible, pre-inspected (observed) from two or more points. Approach to it should not be all at once, and having a disguised group of fire cover for securing. When inspecting local items, you should carefully observe the sides. Investigating in this way the terrain and carefully moving to the object of a specific search, it is necessary to engage increased observation and trained animal instinct. Remember; in the world of tactical reconnaissance, most of the reconnaissance groups are ‘pierced’ not near the sought-after object, but at distant approaches to this object.
When observing guerrilla bases in the mountains and in the forest, lie motionless and do not move – observers of secret posts also conduct active and close observation. At the same time, one should be afraid of the counter-activity of snipers and capture groups.
A camouflaged observation post, arranged on a tall tree, impudently arranged in close proximity to the guerrilla base or along guerrilla movement routes, is very beneficial, and, as it may seem strange, is barely noticeable. Because near the base behind a line of secret posts the opponent is calmed and looks more under legs, than upwards. Dogs of guard breeds are usually sniffed to the ground. And only the dogs of hunting breeds sniff the atmosphere.
When viewed from above, well-identified are ;
movement on approaches to the base, roads, paths, lines of communication, classes with the composition of the enemy, the timing of events occurring at the guerrilla base. For all these signs, the enemy’s quantitative and qualitative condition is being explored, the availability and location of its reserves, links with other bases and detachments. If possible, a personal guerrilla composition is established – by name. The true level of combat training and discipline is established (for example, if loafers and idle people are not noticed on the base, it can tell a lot). Such tracking down of bases by deep hidden raids from high points (from trees or high rocks always gave colossal results). With the development of surveillance devices, one cannot especially be heroic, but simply install special video cameras at such points.
In any case, for such impudent actions, careful preliminary observation of the object of search is required, which is carried out from 2-3 points for several hours to several days.
In addition to all of the above, the special group is obliged to outline the lines for a possible attack of its main forces, the way forward for these lines and the approximate plan for the attack of the object.
>> Intelligence requires constant hard work of the brain and the adoption of independent non-standard solutions in non-recurring circumstances. Everyone must think. The information must be reliable, and therefore the received data are carefully checked and rechecked. <<
In the course of events, all decisions are taken by the reconnaissance group, based on real introductory notes. If necessary, take a prisoner, this issue is resolved either by reconnaissance on a specific object of search, or by setting an ambush. Enemy in the mountains – it is better. This allows you to conduct an attack of the enemy more quickly, more efficiently and at lower physical costs. Such a raid is conducted from the rear and from a hard-to-reach direction, where it is easier to achieve secrecy and surprise, and where the enemy does not expect an attack. It should be borne in mind that the enemy’s running of an unnecessary unsystematic panic fire (especially in the case of smoke) is an advantageous moment for rapprochement with the object of search and capture. If possible, it is better to avoid a big war – it is always possible to drag a fighter who has retired into bushes ‘by need’, who throws garbage away from the base, or who has retired, or on the sly from the leadership who arranged a booze with the same, somewhere behind the perimeter of the base. There are other options.
When setting up an ambush on a mountain path, somewhere on top of the path in a safe place, arrange a shelter from the rocks, preferably circular, and disguise it under the background of the terrain with sprinkling of small stones. This shelter settles in a place with a good view and is used for reconnaissance by day. During the daytime, the reconnaissance group uses shelter for rest and observation, for the night descends to the trail to capture and hold the captive. In the ambush and on the day there should be no stirring, waste to the side for water and for need.
Calm in the mountains is deceptive. In the mountains, observation is not just about you. Water, brought with you, drink only by permission of the commander of the group. The water supply is limited.
Miracles do not happen. High headquarters sooner or later have to come to terms with the idea – maneuver by ordinary pedestrian reconnaissance groups in a severely broken mountainous terrain is difficult, and in some directions it is impossible at all. In such cases, all the hope – to specialized units of mountain rangers, alpine shooters, and mountain rifle divisions, – in different countries they are called in different ways. The soldiers of these units have good mountaineering skills (it just cannot be different), They are equipped with all necessary climbing equipment (full equipment, not one ice axe for 8 people, as usual) and trained to survive in the mountains. If possible, they are brought closer to the task site by helicopters, and then they maneuver independently. Using the above mentioned opportunities, such small units always (always!) carry out successfully necessary actions in the guerrilla rear and are inaccessible. Their caches are also inaccessible to guerrillas – they simply cannot be reached. The activities of specialized skills mountain-troop units are piece work that only professionals can perform (this is a separate and extensive topic).
Combat work in the mountains is not a tourist walk. The weather in the mountains changes frequently, quickly and little predictably. This is also an extensive and separate topic. You need to know at least diurnal changes for a particular section of the terrain and be prepared for these changes.
After the task is completed, the reconnaissance group returns to its own. If possible, it is taken by helicopter. If not, you have to choose yourself, and preferably another way. The path of return must be thought out even before being nominated for assignment. The reconnaissance groups, returning back the same way they were nominated, very often disappeared without a trace.
In the presence of a dense front edge for the reconnaissance group to return to its main forces, it is temporarily, but decisively, pushed into the enemy’s defenses and then retreats back along with the seized reconnaissance group. There are other options. According to the established practice, vehicles moving on the road (frontline) are checked at every possible post very carefully. But the commander’s transport, which was in the immediate vicinity of the front line behind the line of check posts, is often not checked at all – it is believed that this transport is familiar and its own.
With an impudent breakthrough, the enemy is lost and does not open fire on such a machine, assuming that there is an immediate ‘partisan’ command in it. Honouring is common in all armies and armed formations. This tactical feature at all times and in all wars was used by reconnaissance groups and ours, and not ours, to slip into our own. This is especially good in places where there is no continuous trench line.
ROUTE RECONNAISSANCE / EXPLORATION (C-IV)
Secret Intelligence Service. Operative Field Skills.
DEVELOPMENT OF ATTENTION : 19 Simple Exercises
Seminar Extract. Brodsworth. 17 11 2017
Here are nineteen simple and successful techniques for developing attention and observation. Doing these exercises between work, during breaks in work or during rest, you will significantly develop the stability and volume of your / our voluntary attention. qq>> Attention is the concentration of the subject’s activity at a given time on any real or ideal object (subject, event, image, reasoning, etc.). In most people, the amount of attention is 7 ± 2 units. <<
Attention is characterised by : firstly : volume, intensity, stability secondly : oscillations, switchability
Attention happens : involuntary (passive, emotional) arbitrary (active, strong-willed)
Conditions that favour the development of voluntary attention :
1. Normal physical and mental condition. 2. Systematic organisation of work (creation of favourable external and internal conditions). 3. Clear goal setting. 4. A combination of mental and physical actions (for example, notes during reading). 5. Interleaving activities (for example, alternate reading of the textbook and detective).
Look at the unknown picture for 3-4 seconds. List the details (items) that are remembered.
remember less than 5 details – bad;
remember from 5 to 9 details – well;
I remember more than 9 details – excellent.
Name the number of groups of three consecutive digits that add up to 15: qq489561348526419569724
How many digits are simultaneously divided into 3 and 2: qq33; 74; 56; 66; 18
Set the alarm in front of the TV during an interesting programme.
2. For 2 minutes, keep your attention only on the second hand, without being distracted by the TV transmission.
1. Take two felt-tip pens.
2. Try to draw at the same time with both hands. And simultaneously starting and ending. One hand – a circle, the second – a triangle. The circle should be, if possible, with an even circle, and a triangle with sharp ends of the corners.
3. And now try to draw for 1 min. maximum of circles and triangles.
4. Evaluation system : less than 5 – bad; 5-7-average; 8-10 is good; more than 10 – excellent.
Exercise 6 1.
Draw a circle and a triangle at the same time with two different fingers of one hand.
2. Decide how to fix the markers, practice.
3. How much do you draw circles and triangles in this way in 5 minutes?
Evaluate yourself : none is bad 1-3 is not bad 4-5 – good more than 5 – excellent.
Now draw the same, but different numbers: 1 and 2, or 2 and 3, or 3 and 4, and so on.
Find hidden names in the phrases (for example: “Bring coffee to your uncle” – Olga).
1. Tasteless this pasta and apples too. Nurse, give fresh – in orange jelly.
2. May light does not interfere, but it’s bad for me from the early night.
3. Bring a bitter apple from the summer market, please.
4. I forged iron on a bright day.
1. Put an object in front of you.
2. Calmly and carefully look at it for a few minutes.
3. Close your eyes and remember the thing in all details.
4. Open your eyes and find the “missing” details.
5. Close your eyes.
6. Repeat this way until you are able to accurately reproduce the object in your memory.
1. Hide the thing used in the previous exercise.
2. Draw it in all the details.
3. Compare the original with the picture.
1. Today before going to sleep, remember all the faces and objects that were encountered during the day.
2. Recall the words addressed to you during the past day. Repeat what was said.
3. Restore the last meeting, lecture, etc. in memory. Remember the speeches, manners and gestures of the speakers, analyse them.
4. Evaluate your observation and memory.
1. ‘Simultaneous’ means ‘instantaneous’ : in one instant, in one short flash of light, our brain is able to perceive (see, understand, process) a huge amount of information.
2. How can this be achieved? Training : Performing a palm-tree for at least 10 minutes. A short look at the brightly lit page with the purpose to see and identify as much information as possible.
1. Put seven different objects on the table, cover them with anything.
2. Remove the blanket, count slowly to ten, cover the objects again and describe the objects on the paper as fully as possible.
3. Increase the number of items.
1. Go into an unfamiliar room.
2. Quickly examine the situation and ‘photograph’ in the mind as many characteristic features and objects as possible.
3. Go out and write down everything you saw. Compare the recorded with the original.
1. Imagine that you are studying an image, for example, of a moving car.
2. Call with this the characteristic sound sensations.
3. Do this always when you need something to remember thoroughly.
1. Take any poem.
2. Highlight the phrases in it.
3. For each sentence, put a few questions. Do this whenever you need to remember something.
1. Determine your route from point A to point B.
2. Walk this path on foot, noticing all the bright signs.
3. Make a map of unusual signs.
Watch simultaneously several objects at once, equally well perceiving each of them, while concentrating on the subject that you choose the main one.
Let’s divide the entire space of attention into three circles: large – all visible and perceived space (in the theatre – the entire auditorium); middle – a circle of direct communication and orientation (in the theatre – a scene with actors); the small is the person her/himself and the nearest space (in the theatre she/he is the artist her/himself and the nearest space in which he plays a role).
There has been added a fourth circle : the inner psychological space of woman /man.
1. Imagine that you have a powerful searchlight in your head.
2. Select a point in a large circle and a point on the border of the small and inner.
3. Make ‘sweeps’ of the beam ‘searchlight’ from one point to another and back. In this case, extremely tightly ‘dig into’ the selected points.
DEVELOPMENT OF ATTENTION : 19 Simple Exercises
Seminar Extract. Brodsworth. 17 11 2017 (C-I) OR
Remember that life breaks the strongest, putting us on our knees so to prove that we can rise.
She does not touch some, they are already on their knees and so for the rest of their lives.
INCREASING THE CAPACITY OF RUNNING LOADS – AND TO AVOID PERTURBING
(C-IV) Secret Intelligence Service
Operative Field Skills – Mental and Physical
The first increase in the volume of loads should be carried out by gradually increasing the number of training days from 2-3 to 5-6 per week.
When you adapt to training 5-6 times a week for 30 minutes of continuous running, you can gradually increase the training distance by 5% of the original value of 5 km. And in the first week you will have 1 day with increased load, in the second week – 2 days with increased load, but the third week – the relative decrease in the load, almost to the level of the initial one.
The load can not increase to infinity. Each runner has an upper permissible limit of running loads, with 35-40 km per week being the optimal weekly load. It is recommended to gradually increase the volume of the maximum load in one workout to 10-15 kilometers.
At further stages, with the development of a weekly load of up to 35-40 kilometers, it is necessary to think about increasing the running speed, since the further increase in the efficiency of training and the level of training will depend on the pace of the race.
In conclusion, I would like to remind you that it is necessary to gradually increase the load and train consistently from light to medium, from medium to heavy, and use only optimal loads. It is very important to maintain the rest phases – do not overdo it. Remember that excessive load leads to over-voltage. And only the optimal load provides intensive, adaptive protein synthesis, and as a result – positive changes in the body. If necessary or in special cases, running can be replaced by cycling, long walking or swimming.
EXAMPLE WEEKLY TRAINING PLAN
Monday – vacation
Tuesday – Thursday – aerobic running at a distance of 5 km.
Friday – vacation Saturday – aerobic running at a distance of 3 km.
Sunday is an aerobic run at a distance of 7 km.
In total for a week of 25 km.
Increase the volume is necessary at first by gradually increasing the short (3 km), then the average (5 km) training distances.
And most importantly – your diligence in achieving the goal! The most difficult thing is to overcome your laziness and begin to train, throwing away everything “I do not want”, “I can not”, “I will not”, “no time”, not skipping classes.
BLOCKING A BUILDING POINT (OBJECT, LOCATION)
(C-IV) Secret Intelligence Service
Operative Field Skills
Blocking – isolation of an object for the purpose of its subsequent destruction or capture.
Blocking with the subsequent combing of the blocked area is one of the most complicated ways of peacekeeping operations. Blocking actions can be very different: from the tactics of “cobwebs” used by French troops in Algeria, to air and fire blocking the identified garrisons of the enemy. In order to achieve surprise units are secretly nominated simultaneously from several directions to the target area, as a rule, at night and take positions with the subsequent blocking of all escape routes from the blocked area.
The blocking of a settlement consists in occupying advantageous terrain boundaries, reliable blocking of roads and other ways of possible escape and infiltration of small enemy units from their concentration areas, complete isolation and deprivation of access to sources of supply, prohibition of replenishment, supply of ammunition and weapons for the purpose of their subsequent destruction .
These actions should be carried out in two stages :
§ first – blocking the planned settlement
§ second – carding.
The area of the forthcoming blocking is divided into areas of responsibility of the mouth, which in turn are divided into sectors for platoons.
For reliable blocking, it is necessary to create at least two environment rings: – the first – at a distance of 2-3 km from the encircled object, – the second – directly at the settlement.
The area where militants are located is considered to be blocked if there is visual and fire communication between neighboring units located on the border of the district. At the turn of blocking units move to the defense. The gaps are covered with fire and obstacles. To timely strengthen the defending units in the battalion, it is advisable to create a mobile reserve to support efforts at the right site at the right time, as well as to support units combing the area.
When blocking large settlements and cities or parts of the city, battalions (companies) can occupy positions on one of the two ring environments or completely along the ring, simultaneously with the environment (blocking) of a settlement or other object along its perimeter. At the same time, heights and roofs of high buildings prevail over it, which will allow you to control the squares, intersections, main streets and courtyards, passages, roads, etc. during the combing. The main (possible) ways of movement of enemy units inside the city are overlapped by reinforced companies (platoons). For parachute units, the blockage boundary should be chosen at a distance of 150-200 m from the outermost buildings, so that a survey and firing in front of the lying terrain is ensured. Armored groups are located behind the units, providing them with fire and having intervals of 150-200 m. Fire positions of artillery and mortars can be selected in the directions of the likely breakthrough (withdrawal) of the enemy at a distance of up to 500 m. A settlement is considered to be blocked if there is visual and fire communication between neighboring units located on one ring of the environment. At the turn of blocking units move to the defense. The gaps are covered with fire and obstacles. To timely strengthen the defending units in the battalion, it is advisable to create a mobile reserve.
Of particular importance in the conduct of blockade of settlements are measures to achieve concealment, deception of the enemy, the use of non-standard, non-traditional actions, the imitation of nomination on false directions, the use of disinformation, the widespread use of advanced, detachments, tactical airborne assault forces.
To timely reveal the enemy’s intentions, it is necessary to use all available reconnaissance means. The exit to the settlement should be carried out quickly, without delay, while first making sure that there are no mine-blasting obstacles to the direction of action. Not later than a day, if the situation allows and time, it is necessary to conduct reconnaissance and organize interaction on the ground, if it is impossible to organize work on planning actions on the map.
After taking the line, the commander of the battalion (company) must come into contact with the village elders and demand to exclude provocations, dispose of the available weapons, and expel the militants outside the settlement. In the event of non-fulfillment of demands and the implementation of provocations that would lead to the death of military personnel, a settlement may be subjected to fire damage. When enemy armed units exit to unit positions and refuse resistance, they disarm and are escorted, in the event of an attempt to resist the units, fire forces them to abandon it and lay down their arms. The object can be blocked by fire or sub-units. It is carried out with the purpose to cut off the defending garrison from the main forces, to prevent its supply with material means and human resources. Blocking is carried out by land, from air and underground, by separate block posts or by creating a solid front. At the same time, an inner and outer ring of the environment (blocking) is necessarily created. The gaps between the checkpoints (strong points) must be covered by fire and obstacles. To exit the civilian population, ‘security corridors’ can be created, which are created through sound equipment to alert the civilian population in a blocked building (group of buildings). If the enemy garrison refuses to surrender and is unable, under the conditions of the situation, to continue its blocking, the capture of the object by storm is carried out.
IN THE AREA OF ARMED CONFLICT
After disengagement of the armed groups of the conflicting parties in the areas of emergency, the parachute units can be brought to the commandant’s service in the security zone jointly by motorized rifle and tank divisions, as well as with the formations of other law enforcement agencies and law enforcement agencies. To solve this problem, responsibility is being created in the area of responsibility. – checkpoints – observation posts – mobile checkpoints – mobile observation posts – combined checkpoints and observation posts – block-posts – guard posts – strong points
Besides, – there are barriers and barriers, – units are assigned for the protection and defense of important facilities.
The tasks of the curfew :
– prevention of illegal transportation of weapons, weapons, ammunition and explosives to the area of armed conflict; – registration of all movements of people and vehicles through the ceasefire line;
– keeping records of the movement of special vehicles (military vehicles, tanks, armored personnel carriers, guns, etc.);
– monitoring of all actions of unauthorized persons on the ground, especially along roads and in settlements; – observation of the cease-fire, of violators of the terms of the ceasefire infiltrating the zone of responsibility.
Composition of the bodies of the commandant’s service in the state of emergency :
– for outposts (checkpoints) not less than 20 people
– from 13 to 50 people – from 7 to 10 people
– mobile checkpoints from 8 to 20 people
– maneuverable groups of more than 10 people – barriers not less than 30 people – units guarding the objects of at least 30 people.
I will not tell you what friendship means. I think the words are superfluous here. You just tell me what you need and I will come to you when others do not come.
SOME FEATURES OF RECONNAISSANCE – MOUNTAIN WOODED AREAS
Secret Intelligence Service (C-IV)
When moving the reconnaissance group in the mountainous woodland, one must not only be able to read other people’s tracks, but also know when your own will disappear. So, at a temperature of + 15 ° C, the traces on the low grass become almost invisible. After 3-4 hours the grass is completely straightened. High grass straightens after 5-6 hours. On the dewy morning grass, traces are visible within 3-4 hours.
When moving more often look back – while you can see and evaluate your own tracks left by the group. Similarly, they will be assessed by the enemy.
When crawling through dirty and wet sections of the road, do this with support on both elbows, while holding the machine in both hands. When crawling in the grass or in the bushes with one hand, carefully “squeeze” in front of yourself – only so you can detect the stretch.
Try to move cross-country “across” the intersection – this makes it difficult for the enemy to act against you.
In the mountain-wooded area, day and night, the men of the intelligence group must be able to navigate the high landmarks, local objects, the map and compass, the stars and the moon.
In the dense forest, both day and night, with no visible landmarks and celestial bodies, one has to navigate through the compass, the animal instinct, the developed sense of space and the trained sense of time.
In the rocky mountains, reconnaissance is often conducted during the daytime due to difficulties in orientation and movement. The nomination to the object of search, as a rule, is carried out through difficultly passable sites, which requires certain skills of movement in the mountains and overcoming mountain obstacles. Orientation in the mountains is very difficult. It usually occurs with reference to the details of the mountain relief – to peaks, ridges, saddles, separate large stones, roads, trails, with the obligatory memorization of the terrain over which it passed. It should be remembered that the mountain peaks, when viewed from different directions, change their outlines beyond recognition. Survey of the area is very large, it is limited by the depth of rock labyrinths, and landmarks are often lost sight of. Therefore, the route must be learned in advance on the map, aerial photographs, visually to work on panoramic photos taken from helicopters or other reconnaissance groups that have been going on this route before. When driving along the route in the mountains, it is necessary to keep a record of the distance traveled. In the mountains, you must necessarily have a compass and a map. In the fog, traffic can continue only on a safe, explored and previously traversed route. In all other cases, the movement becomes dangerous, meaningless and therefore forbidden.
Large forces are always attached to roads, which are few in the mountains. Therefore, the role of small groups increases, which have more opportunities for quick, unexpected and effective actions.
The sharply crossed terrain creates the possibility of wide maneuver for small groups to bypass the enemy’s secret posts, but at the same time it is necessary to avoid driving along mountain roads, gorges, trails and defile so as not to run into an ambush. When driving, it is necessary to use difficult terrain. In the daytime it is safest and most effective to move along the spurs of the ridges, and not through the gills that the enemy keeps under constant control. It is best to move along the slope at a height of 2 / 3-3 / 4 of the total height of the ramp. It should be borne in mind that the enemy’s observation points and secret posts are set mainly on skates facing the general line of combat contact (front). Do not stay long on the ridges of heights and on the peaks! Routes traversed along the ridges of heights, which the enemy can potentially observe, should be overcome on the back slopes, crossing over ridges or peaks not to be done openly, but to pass through cracks, depressions, etc. When driving in the mountains and generally on rough terrain, it is often necessary to make short stops before obstacles and dangerous places for rest, observation and listening.
When exploring mountain passes, it is necessary to avoid traffic on roads and trails laid on a specific pass. All these ways of movement the enemy keeps under control. Movement in the mountains along the paths is generally dangerous, because near them it is very convenient to make sniper ambushes. A good shooter with a sniper rifle will not leave the reconnaissance team a chance to survive. It is advisable to first climb the ramp nearest to the mountain pass, and from there, carefully observe the pass and the approaches to it, and then secretly advance to the pass.
All the heights in the mountains are carefully inspected from convenient points, from several points, in order to reveal the presence of the enemy by external signs. Then the commander of the reconnaissance group sends out two pairs of sentinels for a more thorough inspection of the altitude, its foot and opposite ramps. The heights should be inspected, not protruding on their crests. Inspection is carried out with skates or bypass from the side. If there is a need to investigate and combs, sentinels (pairs) are allocated accordingly. For the possibility of passing their units on the map, the steepness of the skates, the presence of hidden approaches, the places that the enemy can observe, the ways of circumventing the height and the places where the enemy in potential can arrange an ambush or expose wandering fire weapons are placed on the map. These places, namely: ravines, ravines, crevices, bushes, piles of stones, structures, debris, etc. they are inspected by the group very carefully. If these places seem suspicious, they are first fired, if possible, and then inspected.
When you examine the gorge, a deep ravine, gorges, crevices, a pair of sentinels move along the bottom of the ravine, and two pairs of sentinels move slightly ahead of them along both ravines (sides) of the ravine. If you do not do this, do not move this “jump”, the sentinel, located below, can be easily destroyed or captured by the enemy. This is one of the main principles of conducting military operations in the mountains – all are defending or attacking the so-called “reverse horseshoe” – “horns” forward, bending their flanks along the slopes of heights facing the enemy, according to the principle of fire-bag-traps. At the bottom of the ravine (gorge), as a rule, an intensified group of sweeps is moving under the fire cover from above. Reserves, as a rule, are located in two places on the directions available for their extension, or are in such directions in mobile modes.
When exploring a deep ravine, cleft, gorge, gorge, special attention is paid to reconnaissance of tactical heights located along and on the sides of the investigated deep and narrow place. The reconnaissance group moves at the same time as the order indicated above: the sentinels advance along the slopes of the heights facing the gorge, and the main group consists of them behind them at the bottom of the gorge.
In the exploration of short, but dangerous crevices, depressions, gullies, ravines, gorges, the main composition remains near the entrance to it, and the sentinels inspect the cleft, moving along its lateral slopes. At the end of the inspection, the sentinels occupy the positions of the fire cover at the exit from the crevice and give the signal: “The path is free.” Under their cover, the main structure passes a gully (crevice).
According to the situation, side patrols can be strengthened. When exploring the gorge, carefully examine rocky talus, piles of boulders and large rock fragments, thickets, shady places for the detection of partisan ambushes and secret posts.
The advancement of a small group past the mountain, along its slope when searching, combing, open hostilities is also produced by a ledge.
In the exploration of a mountain river, the width, depth, speed of the current, the character of the banks (screes, steepness), the presence of fords, crossings, the possibility of using improvised crossing means are established for the passage of their divisions, the possible level of water rise is determined over the boulders. The width of the river is determined mainly by the eye or by the method of similar triangles (see clip 2). The speed of the current is determined with the help of a light object that rushes into the river and moves with the speed of the current. Current at a speed of up to 0.5 m / s. is considered to be weak, up to 1 m / sec. – average, up to 2 m / sec. – Fast, more than 2 m / sec. – very fast.
When examining bridges, determine: the presence of security and how much it is, the carrying capacity, length and width, the presence of a ford near the bridge and the curvature of the access roads to it. An unprotected bridge should be inspected with observance of security measures – the retreating enemy always mines the bridge. When inspecting a bridge, a pair of sentinels, under the fire cover of the main group, inspects the bridge from above and from below.
When moving the intelligence group, one way or another, it will be necessary to seek a ford through the mountain streams. The best time to overcome mountain rivers is the morning when the water level in the rivers is minimal, and the probability of its increase is the smallest. In the second half of the day, the water level rises due to the melting of snow and glaciers. Therefore, the places available in the morning, after dinner can become impassable.
The most accessible for the crossing place are the extended sections of the channel. Wade is recommended to search below the rocky islets in places with the most calm surface of the water. It is better to choose a ford in places where there are few large boulders – near them the bottom is “washed up” and deepened. The presence of fords is indicated by trails descending to the river and emerging from the water on the opposite shore.
The river must be moved in pairs or small groups under the fire cover of its own.
When moving “along the shallow water”, so as not to create noise, gradually lower the foot “from the toe”, dragging it along the water, as if walking on skis. If you need to take your foot out of the water, it is done slowly by “socking down” to water as quietly as possible to the glass with the toe of the shoe down.
It should be remembered that gullies, ravines, gorges, thickets of bush near water (rivers) can serve as watering places (water intake) or for crossing, or for hidden concentration of the enemy and preparation of crossing facilities for them.
In the mountains, scouts must constantly monitor the weather conditions, avoid movement along the fairways of the weirs, do not stay in narrow valleys and gorges for a long time, listen to possible noise of approaching water or mud flow during the rains and during ferries.
It should be borne in mind that the current of the mountain river is accompanied by the so-called “white noise”, soothingly acting on a person. “White noise” lulls and weakens attention. This explains why you can not even hear a shot near a mountain river.
I do not care who you are; white, black, low, tall, thin, fat, poor, rich, male. female, both and neither, or of whatever orientation. If you are kind to me, then I will be good to you.
ORIENTEERING IN FORESTED AREAS. (C-IV)
Having lost hope, it is more reliable to return to your original walk point in your tracks and to orient yourself again if you cannot do this, then you need to go to any linear landmark. If there is a river in the forest, the location of the river system is known, the road, a clearing, the direction of which is known, can be taken as landmarks by using the azimuth of a roughly defined perpendicular to the chosen landmark. In general, moving down the river, at the end of the end you will come to human habitation.
Going out on the path, you need to carefully examine it. Beats a branch in the face, in the chest – you have to leave the path: it is an animal and will not lead to human habitation.
Being in the forest, you must always clearly realize the sides of the horizon and the direction of movement.
Moving in the forest, you must always represent your location, that is, remember as much as possible your path, noticing on the way items that can serve as landmarks.
Steeped stump, fallen tree, glades, roads and their intersections, rivers and streams and their characteristic curves, river crossings and flow directions, well-marked relief forms (cliffs, saddle tops, mounds, pits, steep cliffs) glades, felling, bushes, woodlands, swamps, narrowed passages between obstacles, sharp folds of a relief, bogs, lakes, it is necessary to avoid forest blockages and other obstacles.
It is useful to know that the wind in the forest at a distance of 100-200 meters from the edge is almost not felt; in the summer it is colder in the forest than in the field, and in winter it is warmer; the day is cooler, and at night it is warmer. Mail in the forest freezes to a shallower depth than in the field. Snow in the forest comes off 2-3 weeks later than in the open.
It is necessary to pay attention to the grass, which is thicker in spring than in the southern outskirts of the northern outskirts of the glades. If you take separately standing trees, stumps, poles, large stones, then, on the contrary, the grass grows thicker from the south of them, and from the north it is kept fresh in the hot season.
In the forest near the stumps, as well as in the marshes near the bumps on the southern side, which heats up more strongly, berries of blueberry, blueberries, blueberries, cranberries ripen earlier than on the north side. In the open forest area, berries and fruits in the period of maturation acquire color earlier on the south side. Hence, the north will be in the opposite direction.
Certain animals build their homes, given the prevailing wind direction.
Mushrooms prefer to be located on the north side of a tree, stump, bush. For example. On the aspen hemp grow gray mushrooms. Four hats stretch as if from one trunk, and, what is especially characteristic, they all grow from the northern side of the hemp, this is confirmed by dense green, like velvet, moss from this side.
A good reference is the tree bark, which is usually rougher and darker from the north than from the south. It is especially noticeable on the birch tree. This sign can be hedged by observing the color of the bark of not one tree, but a group. After the rain, the trunks of the pines usually turn black from the north, which is due to the fact that a thin secondary crust develops on the cortex, which forms earlier on the shady side of the trunk and goes higher along it than on the southern side. Cork during the rain swells and darkens.
Along the northern side of the smooth trunks of the high pine trees, dark strips are also high upwards, clearly visible on the lighter part of the trunk. This is due to the stagnation of moisture from the rains, which lasts longer on the north side, not illuminated by the sun side of the tree.
If there is no rain, but on the contrary, the weather is hot, the pine trees can serve as landmarks in this case. You just need to look closely at which side of the trunk is allocated more resin. This side will always be southern.
In spring and early summer, when the sap flow begins, trees lay large fibers with wide lumens and thin walls. In the second half of summer and autumn, the wood fibers become compressed, dense – the lumens are narrow, the walls are thick.
The spring wood is light, the winter is dark.
In March-April, around the trunks of separately standing trees, stumps and pillars, holes are formed, stretched in a southerly direction. In spring, on the slopes facing the sun, during the thawing of snow, protrusions are formed to the south – “thorns” separated by notches, the open part of which is facing south.
Before you delve into the forest, you must always pay attention to the sun, remember from which side it is located. If the sun is on the right, then when you exit in the same direction from the forest, it needs to be on the left.
If you delay in the forest for more than an hour, remember that due to the rotation of the Earth, the sun has shifted to the right. Therefore, leaving the forest in the sun, if we use it as a landmark, we have to further deviate to the left by 15 degrees.
Here the main means of orientation is the compass. It is necessary to know in advance the magnitude of the magnetic declination and in the way to periodically check the accuracy of the arrow of the compass on the celestial lights and the intended landmarks, thereby eliminating the line of local magnetic anomalies.
When orienting, it is necessary first of all to orient the map, that is, to give it a horizontal position when all its lines are parallel to the corresponding lines in the terrain and the direction on the map drawn from the point of standing to an object coincides with the corresponding direction to terrain.
In the forest, the map is oriented along the usual compass, applying it to the west or east side of the map frame, and, setting it in a horizontal position, rotate with the compass until the dark end of the arrow (in the absence of declination) is set against the letters C or in the presence of declination) against a reading equal to the declination given its sign. In these cases, the map is oriented to solve all subsequent problems.
During movement in the forest, it is prohibited to smoke, throw burning matches, cigarette butts and knock out hot ash from smoking pipes. First, the smell of tobacco is alien to all forest smells and will give out your presence for several tens of meters. Secondly, you can carelessly become the cause of a forest fire and then for the longest time from him to run.
Working in a closed taiga requires experience and constant attention. In such cases it is necessary to keep in mind the impression of an average direction of movement. On sunny days, good control is the angle between the direction of movement and the sun (or shadows of trees).
Moving along the azimuth in the forest, in the bush or on the terrain, full of small obstacles-pits, dense thickets, fallen trees, blockages, one must bypass the obstacles in turn: then to the right, then to the left, as one can quickly get off on one side only selected direction. In addition, here all the landmarks are monotonous and it is difficult to distinguish them from each other, and the front of the front is limited to a few meters. Therefore, one and the participants must go ahead without a compass and serve as a guide for the followers.
On the southern slopes of mountains and hills, the formation of thawed patches occurs faster the greater the steepness of the slopes. The same thawing can be observed even in the tracks of man and animals left in the snow.
Uneven development of trees in the forest and in the field.
In freedom, in the garden, in the field. They have a shorter conical trunk. If spore plants – mosses, ferns, horsetails, mushrooms – as well as mushrooms – are found in open places, then here recently there was a forest.
(C-IV) Secret Intelligence Service
Operative Field Skills – Mental and Physical
“Language can say anything at all, but eyes will never lie.”
DEFENCE WHILE IN A FORESTED AREA
Operative Field Skills – TACTICS IN COUNTER-TERROR
Secret Intelligence Service (C-IV)
The defending side (ourselves) while in a forested area, has many advantages, such as offering the maximum use of shelters and camouflage, selection of terrain for fighting, equipment of fire positions, taking into account the greatest effectiveness of fire, and so on. The success of defensive fighting in the forest will largely depend on the good knowledge and skillful use of the features of such a locality. And for this it is necessary to do everything to ensure that operatives / troops in a defense role in the forest act freely in it, so that they can safely maneuver and strike on the flanks and even in the rear of the advancing enemy target grouping, using the roads and the hidden nature of the terrain.
At first glance it appears that the defending forces in the forest are in a better position than the advancing ones, but, in the opinion of certain ‘military experts’, this is not quite so. The experience of the Second World War and subsequent more local wars shows that in cases where the defending forces did not take effective measures to improve their defence and find new, especially maneuverable methods of conducting military operations on the defensive, they were usually defeated.
The experience of the Second World War and subsequent local wars shows that the defending forces in the forest only then have advantages over the adversaries when they skillfully use the protective properties of the forest and boldly maneuver their operatives / forces and means both in the depth of their defense (for example, when annihilating landed airborne assaults or break-through enemy groupings), and when counter-strikes are applied.
It is believed that to stop the enemy is most expedient near the edge, and to defeat them best in the depths of the forest. The main point for organising defence in the forest should be the choice of the most rational methods of combat operations. And this in turn depends on the tasks facing the units, the nature of the terrain, the combat capabilities of troops and that of the enemy.
If the task is set at all costs to keep the lines occupied in the forest, then the defending units and formations will build their defence in a continuous and deeply echeloned manner. On a wider scale, the basis of it will be the battalion adapted for circular defence. All clearings and roads are to be blocked by rubble and excavations, minefields and engineering obstacles are created on tank-dangerous tracks, the fire system is carefully developed, the second echelons and reserves are located near road nodes in readiness for counter-attacks in various directions.
It is recommended that an advanced defensive line in the forest be created at some distance from the fringe, and that trees be preserved before the front at a distance of 100-150 m (they serve as a sort of cap, causing premature ruptures of shells), and to improve the view should cut down the lower branches of trees and young growth. Machine gunners and grenade launchers choose firing positions in such a way as to have the largest firing sectors. Tanks, anti-tank guns (again on a wider scale) will be located on tank-dangerous tracks along the glades and roads both on the front line and in the depth of defence.
Combat protection can take a position on the ledges of the forest or in front of it at a distance of 150-200 m. The range of the aimed fire from small arms in the young forest does not exceed 50-100 m, and in the old rarely reaches 200 m. Thus, in a 70-year-old fir forest in the 45 ° sector at a distance of 100 m there will be about 300 trees over 20 cm thick. Therefore, the shooter (gunner) in this area will have a small clearance to defeat the target.
If the situation allows, defending units can pre-shoot some areas of the forest, especially dense, where the aimed fire of small arms and direct-targeting weapons will be particularly effective. In these cases, it is recommended to expose observers who, upon detection of an enemy, will signal the opening of a fire in the prepared areas.
It is also recommended to organise fire from ambushes both before the front edge and in the depths of the forest. As the experience of the Second World War and subsequent local wars has shown, the impact of artillery and mortar fire on unprotected troops in the forest is extremely large. The defenses in the forest (if they carried out the corresponding engineering work) are in a more advantageous position in the artillery shelling than the advancing ones. They are securely hidden and well disguised, and after artillery shelling it is even difficult to find them among the fallen trees and twigs.
The advancing troops will in this case have to overcome difficult terrain after the artillery fire (often without effective support of tanks and artillery). The accuracy of artillery fire in the forest due to the limited observation and complexity of adjusting the fire is low. It is believed that some artillery observers here cannot cope with their tasks. Therefore, it is considered expedient to give them to the aid of the infantry located on the front line, and especially in the military guard. However, for this, it will be necessary to train platoon commanders in the methods of target designation and adjustment of artillery fire, and also provide them with the necessary observation instruments and communication facilities.
As the situation in the forest changes very quickly, and the main gravity of the battle falls on small units, it is intended to temporarily impart to them guns and mortars that can immediately open fire when targets appear. If there is a developed road network in the forests in the organisation of defence, it will be necessary to create a large number of blockages on roads and glades. But with modern engineering technology, unprotected blockages will not be an obstacle for the advancing troops, so it is considered necessary to allocate some forces in advance to protect these debris.
It is recommended to conduct battles on obstructions in succession; first on one, then on the other. The time won on these intermediate lines is used to concentrate forces and means before the decisive blow on the flanks or from the rear. When constructing forest blockages it is recommended to create various kinds of traps and organise ambushes, and to block the rubble itself, to braid with barbed wire and arrange so that the advancing troops fall into pens, covered from the flanks by fire weapons. It is assumed that the defending troops will let those advancing into these pens, and then with artillery, mortar and infantry fire from the flanks and subsequent counter-attacks cut off all the ways of retreat.
Something similar, only on a large territory, the US tried to practice in Vietnam. They created the so-called death zones in the jungle, pushing the guerrillas into predetermined areas. Then they were struck by air strikes, as well as artillery strikes, after which the US troops entered these zones and cleared them from the enemy. It is believed that when conducting combat operations in areas with forest debris defenders know the terrain better and can more successfully use it for their own purposes.
An important role here will play the surprise of a counter-attack against the advancing troops. However, it can only be achieved when defensive structures, obstructions and obstacles are carefully disguised and not previously opened by enemy reconnaissance. Fires are a serious danger for units and units defending themselves in the forest, especially in dry times. To combat fires, it is recommended that all personnel be provided with shovels, fire extinguishers and other fire-fighting equipment.
The organisation and management of these activities is usually entrusted to the engineer troops, and all parts and units participate in them.
Based on the experience of the Second World War, subsequent local wars and exercises, specialists come to the conclusion that when conducting defensive actions in the forest, it is necessary to use the maneuver by forces and means more widely, with the help of which it is possible to solve the tasks posed more successfully and with less force. But this requires time and good preparation of troops for action in a wooded area. The success of a defensive battle in the forest is determined not by the number, but by the degree of preparation and good knowledge of the terrain.
During the battle in the forest, the issues of organising management and interaction come to the fore. This is due, above all, to the disunity of the actions of units, the limited visibility and the lack of clear local landmarks. In these conditions, it is recommended that the command posts be as close as possible to the operational units and that the distance between individual elements of the battle formation be reduced in every possible way. Although the main tactical principles of fighting in the forest remain unchanged, at the same time, it is necessary to take into account certain features of this kind of combat. Therefore, already in peacetime, it is necessary to train operatives / troops more thoroughly for battle in the forest, to teach them to navigate in difficult conditions, both with and without maps, to inculcate the skills of shooting in limited sectors of firing at rapidly emerging targets, to mask, to create protozoa, wood- and fire facilities, to fight forest fires, to move unnoticed and quickly in the forest, etc.
Operative Field Skills – TACTICS IN COUNTER-TERROR
Secret Intelligence Service (C-IV)
TECHNIQUE OF SHOOTING A TWIN SHOT FROM A PISTOL
Secret Intelligence Service (C-IV)
Shooting involves the production of a double, as if paired shot, from a pistol of any, even a large calibre, with an obligatory double hit in the target. In this regard, there are special features in keeping weapons, aiming, racking, etc.
How to produce correctly :
(I) The case should be slightly deployed sideways (boxing rack). The enemy has a problem with aiming at the smaller target area of the body arrow.
(II) The head is located without inclinations forward or back. There are people who have good physical data, strong legs and therefore prefer to sit down slightly, how to cuddle up, merge with the ground, spring up. But this is a relative value for the production and does not play a big role. What needs to be done in the ‘twin shot’ system is the way to keep the weapon. The grip here is not the same as in the cases that were considered earlier – the arms wrap is made with two hands, the index finger of the left hand grasps the pistol brace, the thumb of the left hand under the thumb of the right hand. In the latest models of modern pistols on the staple, a reverse protrusion is made for the comfort of keeping the weapon with the help of the index finger of the left hand (precisely for shooting in the ‘double shot’ system). The right and left hand cover the pistol grip tightly. The fingers of the left hand over the fingers of the right hand.
Do not close the second eye, the view is deteriorating, the field of view is decreasing. Having a good stance, having made the right retention of the weapon and correctly aiming, it is still impossible to withstand a double shot with the aiming line – the aiming device of the weapon will ‘leave’ after the first pressing of the trigger. The weapon twitches, the eyes reflexively close from the smoke and flash, but the unconscious, correct aiming should remain and it is necessary to train. And by pressing the trigger a second time, be sure that the second bullet will get there as well.
This is the most difficult part of training, but achievable in the course of hard training. If in the shooting sports the main role is played by aiming, then in the shooting ‘double shot’ a large role is assigned to the muscular memory for the production of a second, accurate shot.
The shooter must train many times with his weapon, including idle shooting (i.e., without a cartridge), pressing the trigger tens, hundreds, thousands of times until a stable muscle memory is developed in aiming and holding the gun. Only this will give an opportunity in an extreme situation to automatically make the right move, with a guarantee of success by 100%. Time for production, shot:
for beginners – one shot in one second.
for a double shot, at a distance of 7 m – for 1, 5 seconds.
when shooting a double shot, pulling the weapon out of the holster – for 2 seconds.
The basic initial rule is 1 second per shot. This is the basis for the instructor in determining the amount of time spent performing the exercise.
It is important to learn to put your finger on the trigger, do not make a premature shot. You need to trust the weapons. A ‘receptive’ memory should be developed very well. Only then there will not be an accidental shot. It is necessary to train a lot in the preparation for shooting and to be able to train without a cartridge.
In the protective shooting ‘double shot’ do not try to shoot at a certain point (head, chest), the main thing – this direction. Sights should be combined somewhere in the area of the figure of a person, regardless of which part of the silhouette. It is necessary to go from simple to complex. First, 2 shots are fired for 5, and then 7 and more meters. Also initially two shots should be with a small gap in the future the time between shots is shortened.
So let’s repeat: the position of the body is the ‘boxing rack’. The arms should take the position of the triangle, the left elbow hand pointing down, the right one more straight, but also bent (hands not fully extended). This triangle must always be preserved, in any case, when it is fired, it remains. The direction of aiming is changed only by the body.
The waiting position, preceding the aiming, is very close to the shooting position. The aiming is not done by throwing out the hands, but by keeping the same triangle, only lifting the arms.
The next important point is that the hands are slightly bent at aiming in order to bring the fly and eye to the eyes, at the expense of which it is easier to aim. The shooter quickly finds and combines the fly and the rear sight. The golden rule is SIGHT.
The most difficult thing to achieve when firing a ‘double shot’ is to learn how to control the effort of the hands, which must be directed in different directions. With your right hand, un-clench the closed ring from yourself, and squeeze it with your left hand. It turns out a powerful rasp, in which there is a gun. Brushes and forearms are strained, whereas the shoulder girdle is quite relaxed.
It is wrong if the right hand is absolutely straight, because the gun’s return will send the hand up, while the bent arm will extinguish this recoil and the hand with the gun will not go so far up.
It must be remembered that always the hands should raise the gun without moving the head to eye level, relative to the aiming line. Hands rise to the level of the line of sight at the target. The rest of the body is immovable.
TECHNIQUE OF SHOOTING A TWIN SHOT FROM A PISTOL
Secret Intelligence Service (C-IV)
There are situations when even a second is a long time. Modern fighting requires an increase in the speed of making a decision to open fire and instantly prepare for its conduct. In combat, reaction and coordination of movements constitute one of the main factors of survival – and, accordingly, the fulfillment of the task. A trained operative / soldier has more chances to win moments for making the only right decision and opening fire.
It is noticeable that to improve the reaction is to be taught to immediately throw up weapons and aim it – quite possibly for a duration of 2 to 3 months of systematic training. This technique is easily accessible.
How to expand the range of perception
It is necessary to expand the range of perception – sensory acuity. As you know, a person has five main sense organs – perception channels : sight, hearing, smell, taste, tactile sensitivity (pain, temperature, muscle-joint, vibration, pressure, sensitivity of internal organs). First, there is a consistent and then simultaneous training; this is a necessary condition for effective and adequate response in non-standard situations.
Usually start with the training of the visual canal. De-focusing the eyesight, training the peripheral (lateral) vision allows you to notice the slightest movements outside the field of the main review. Then – the improvement of hearing, touch, etc. Ultimately, the result is a formula fixed at the level of automatism, ‘I see everything, I hear everything, I feel everything’. At the same time, consciousness remains free to assess changes in the environment.
Remember that the human body has enormous capabilities. For example, in a trained person, the accuracy of positioning the head is about 1 degree sideways and 1.5-2 degrees forward and backward, at the level of the average gyroscopic sensor. The transmission rate of the excitation pulse from the central nervous system to the muscles is about 120 m / s. That is, theoretically, the time interval from the moment of making the decision to the shot should be 0.008 s if the distance from the brain to the index finger is approximately 1 m, but in life it is two.
In the world, nothing is impossible. It’s only whether you have the courage. Who dares wins.
Secret Intelligence Service
Mental and Physical. Page V.
Operative Field Skills
We do not know whether we will return tomorrow. But we know for sure that we will not die in vain.
Secret Intelligence Service
Adversitate Custodi. Per Verum