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Secret Intelligence Service

Research Unit

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Looking into the Nature of our Future Work

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In harnessing our curiosity, we are gathering data, the objective being to provide scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and properties of the world

Why and in what ways is this useful to us?

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It is essential that we increase our stock of knowledge, particularly of, though not confined to, emerging technologies, as pertaining to human beings, to cultures and to societies, and to apply this stock of knowledge in devising new applications within our particular field of endeavour.

We are doing this experimentally via direct and / or indirect observation, in both ‘laboratory type settings’ and in the field, documenting the methodology, results, and conclusions of experiments, thus striving toward interpretations that are new.

We must stress that we are also creative minds and as stated herein, thus compelled via altogether different methods than the empirical as before stated, i.e. not to seek for an ‘ultimate correct’ answer to a question, moreover, from a psychoanalytic perspective to explore issues and details that surround a question – social, historical, political, cultural, and / or ethnic.

UNIT

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2018 – 2020

Scholarly material :

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Number (I)  File : The Impact of Psychopathy

Psychopathy is a personality variable associated with persistent immoral behaviours. Despite this, attempts to link moral reasoning deficits to psychopathic traits have yielded mixed results with many findings supporting intact moral reasoning in individuals with psychopathic traits. Abundant evidence shows that psychopathy impairs responses to others’ emotional distress. However, most studies of morality and psychopathy focus on judgments about causing others physical harm. Results of such studies may be inconsistent, because physical harm is an imperfect proxy for emotional distress. No previous paradigm has explicitly separated judgments regarding physical harm and emotional distress and assessed how psychopathy affects each type of judgment. In three studies it is found that psychopathy impairs judgments about causing others emotional distress (specifically fear) but minimally affects judgments about causing physical harm, and that judgments about causing fear predict instrumental aggression in psychopathy.

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Number (II)  File : Identifiable Images of Bystanders Extracted from Corneal Reflections

There is more on this research, but we need to consider if effective, where it would / might place us, vis a vis and hypothetically, if we were subject to it. This is an important consideration.

The dark and shiny areas of cornea are as a black mirror reflecting the surrounding environment from it. Given the power of high-resolution photography, it is conceivable that these reflections could contain decipherable information, the kind that could help investigating crimes wherein victims are photographed, for example; hostage taking and / or child sex abuse. Research appears to be indicating that faces can be identified from even the very poorest quality images

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Number (III) File : The Effects of Gender and Personality on First Impression

In the investigation, was explored the relationship between individual differences (i.e., gender and personality traits), and trustworthiness judgments of unfamiliar and emotionally neutral faces. The results suggest that these judgments are affected by the gender of the perceiver, although this effect depends on the valence (Latin valent -, valens, present participle of valēre ‘to have strength’) of the face. Women tend to judge trustworthy-looking faces as significantly more trustworthy than do men. There were no gender differences for judgments of untrustworthy-looking or neutral faces. Moreover, unlike men, women’s trustworthiness judgments are also affected by the gender of the face. Specifically, women judge faces of other women as slightly more trustworthy, compared to male faces.

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Number (IV) File : Adaptive Advantages of Overconfidence in War

Overconfidence has long been considered a cause of war. As with other decision-making biases, overconfidence appears detrimental because it increases the frequency and costs of fighting. However, evolutionary biologists have proposed that overconfidence may also confer adaptive advantages: increasing ambition, resolve, persistence, bluffing opponents, and winning net payoffs from risky opportunities despite occasional failures. Herein are the results of an agent-based model of inter-state conflict, which allows the evaluation of the performance of different strategies in competition with each other. Counter-intuitively, one finds that overconfident states predominate in the population at the expense of unbiased, or under confident states. Overconfident states win, because : they are more likely to accumulate resources from frequent attempts at conquest. (2) They are more likely to gang up on weak states, forcing victims to split their defences. (3) When the decision threshold for attacking requires an overwhelming asymmetry of power, unbiased and under confident states shirk many conflicts they are actually likely to win. These ‘adaptive advantages’ of overconfidence may, via selection effects, learning, or evolved psychology, have spread and become entrenched among modern states, organizations, and decision-makers. This would help to explain the frequent association of overconfidence and war.

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Number (V) File : The Enemy as Animal: Symmetric Dehumanization during Asymmetric Warfare

This investigation adds substantial weight to the recent evidence for the importance of blatant out-group dehumanization, showing that it can take root not only among those groups occupying the upper echelons of power and status, but also among those at the bottom. The findings argue for the importance of continued research in this area. If, as UNESCO states; “Wars begin in the minds of men and women”, it is critical that one understands how and why individuals come to openly perceive their adversaries as being animals unworthy of moral consideration, so one can assess efforts employed to erode this somewhat imposing psychological structure.

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Number (VI) File : The Role of the Insular Cortex in Retaliation

Incorporation of neuroscience techniques built on the mapping of biological quantities or properties onto spatial representations of the human brain. Basically, demonstrating the utilisation of emerging tech. in the study of the anatomy and function of the brain and spinal cord through the use of imaging, including intra-operative, microscopic, endoscopic and multi-modality imaging, immune-histochemistry, molecular & optogenetics, stem cell and cellular biology, engineering (material, electrical and biomedical), neurophysiology and nanotechnology.

This investigation demonstrates the central role of insular cortex in retaliation. It is shown that the left posterior insular cortex is a core brain region involved in retaliatory aggression; this was specifically demonstrated for provocative versus non-provocative social interactions. Employed were random effects group analyses, and examined parametric modulations of brain activity during a controlled behavioural aggression paradigm. The left-lateralization of insular activity during retaliation is in line with evidence from electro-physiological studies, suggesting left-lateralized fronto-cortical dominance during anger processing and aggressive acts. Furthermore, the results support the theory that particularly the posterior segment of insular cortex is involved in the processing of emotions triggering intense bodily sensations and immediate action tendencies.

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Number (VII) File : Pre-emptive Striking in Individual and Group Conflict

An investigation to assess pre-emptive striking by and towards individuals and / or groups. In the framework of a pre-emptive strike game, was set the following four conditions : one person facing another person, one person facing a three-person group, a three-person group facing an individual, and a three-person group facing another three-person group. Previous investigations have revealed that greed is activated when participants belong to a group, while fear is activated when participants interact with a group, and further, that attacking behaviours in the pre-emptive strike game are driven by fear. These observations led to a hypothesis that high attack rates would be realized when participants interact with a group, regardless of whether the participants make decisions as individuals or a group. The results of this investigation, however, rejected this hypothesis.

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Number (VIII)  File : Facing Aggression. Cues Differ for Female versus Male Faces

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Number (IX)  File : The Dread of Uncertain Pain

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Number (X)  File : FEAR (Re; ‘On the Treatment and Maltreatment of Women’ (C-I))

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Number (XI)  File : Detection of the Elite Structure

Elites are subgroups of individuals within a society, and have the ability and means to influence, lead, govern, and shape societies. Members of elites are often well connected individuals, which enables them to impose their influence to many and to quickly gather, process, and spread information. In this investigation it is argued that elites are not only composed of highly connected individuals, but also of intermediaries connecting hubs to form a cohesive and structured elite-subgroup at the core of a social network. The validity of the idea is shown in the framework of a virtual world defined by a massive multi-player, online game.

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Number (XII)  File : The Affective Dimensions of Inter-group Humiliation

A study of the affective characteristics of humiliation, comparing the emotional experience of inter-group humiliation to two other emotions humiliation is often confused with; anger and shame. The defining characteristics of humiliation were low levels of guilt and high levels of other-directed outrage (like anger and unlike shame), and high levels of powerlessness (like shame and unlike anger). Reasons for the similarities and differences of humiliation with anger and shame are discussed in terms of perceptions of undeserved treatment and injustice. Implications for understanding the behavioural consequences of humiliation and future work investigating the role of humiliation in social life are discussed.

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Number (XIII)  File :  Violent, Sexist Video Games. Identification with Game Characters. Masculine Beliefs and Empathy for Female Violence Victims

The investigation is correlates with those prior showing that violent video games can desensitize individuals to real-life violence, including violence against women. More important, it moves beyond the question of whether violent games are harmful per se, to address the important questions of whom is most likely to be harmed by violent-sexist video games, and through what mechanism does the harm occur.

Who specifically are we referring to are players that identify with the violent-sexist game character. Results support the prediction that playing violent-sexist video games increases masculine beliefs and decreases empathy for female violence victims, especially for boys and young men who highly identify with the male game character. Previous investigations have shown that video games are especially likely to increase aggression among players who identify with violent game characters, and that a reduced empathy is one of the major predictor for aggression against women. Exposure to media violence is one of the many factors that can influence empathy levels.

Note :

VIOLENT VIDEO GAMES : Do provide a forum for learning and practicing aggressive solutions to conflict situations. The effect of violent video games appears to be cognitive in nature. However, in the short term, playing a violent video game appears to affect aggression by priming aggressive thoughts. Longer-term effects are likely to be longer lasting as well, as the player learns and practices new aggression-related scripts that become more and more accessible for use when real-life conflict situations arise. If repeated exposure to violent video games does indeed lead to the creation and heightened accessibility of a variety of aggressive knowledge structures, thus effectively altering the person’s basic personality structure, the consequent changes in everyday social interactions may also lead to consistent increases in aggressive affect. The active nature of the learning environment of the video game suggests that this medium is potentially more dangerous than the more heavily investigated TV and movie media. With the recent trend toward greater realism and more graphic violence in video games and the rising popularity of these games, (I) one should be aware of these potential risks (II) Importantly, violent video games can be commandeered to both create and exaggerate the tendency. UNIT.

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Number (XIV)  File : The Developmental Dynamics of Terrorist Organisations

This particular investigation focuses on global trends and patterns in the frequency and severity of events, rather than on event particulars or motivations. By focusing the analysis at the global scale, the importance of individual decisions in specific contexts is in fact lessened, due to the central limit theorem and the rough independence of individual events; as a result, the importance of generic non-strategic processes is enhanced and these processes, if any, may be studied. Explanations of such patterns thus focuses on processes or constraints that are independent of variations in context or specific motivation and may include physical constraints, network effects and endogenous population dynamics, which are well suited to explain the behaviour of strategically uncoordinated populations of actors. This approach to investigating the fundamental laws of terrorism has much in common with that of statistical physics, in which the self-averaging properties of independent events allows for interesting population-level properties to emerge from microscopic system chaos. This statistical physics-style approach is increasingly being applied to study complex social systems, yielding a number of novel insights.

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No. (XV) File : THE RAPE OF WOMEN IN WAR – DIRTY WAR 

(See Room No. 15 : ‘On the Treatment and Maltreatment of Women’ and ‘Enhanced Interrogation’

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No. XVI File : Is Violent Radicalisation Associated with Poverty, Migration, Poor Self Reported Health and Common Mental Disorders?

A study of common mental disorders and violent radicalisation, taking account social and political attitudes, beliefs and health related behaviours associated with sympathies for and importantly, radicalisation in a minority Muslim-heritage population sample of South Asian ethnic origin, living in the U.K.

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No. XVI File : Psychoanalytic Theory and the Terrorist. Seminar Series (Notes I of V)

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No. XVII File : Exploring the Social Transmission of Lying Behaviour

THE ISSUE OF LIES : The question of how dishonesty spreads through social networks is relevant to relationships, organizations, and society at large. Individuals may not consider that their own minor lies contribute to a broader culture of dishonesty. Research in this is noteworthy because honesty is identified as a universal value. To understand how social and cultural standards for dishonesty may form in spite of the universal moral of truthfulness, one can point to an important distinction between two types of social norms, which are. ‘Injunctive norms’ referring to actions that people generally approve of, while ‘descriptive norms’ referring to actions that people generally engage in. The results of certain recent studies indicate that descriptive norms for dishonesty can vary even as the injunctive norm for honesty remain constant. > Thus, if societies are to truly uphold the virtue of honesty, individuals will need to pull together to expose lies when they occur, and prevent them from quietly weaving themselves into the social fabric. < UNIT

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File No. XVIII : Telling Lies : The Irrepressible Truth

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Addendum (I)

Consider a series of tests : Each test with different conditions and importantly, the amount of remuneration. It is possible to record that the number of untruthful test subjects grow with each test.

As a result, when a person cheats for her / himself, every time she / he lies more and more often. At the same time, the signal in the brain amygdala decreases, each time, that is, the brain adapts to the ever increasing scale of the lie. The degree of decrease in the sensitivity of the amygdala when deciding to act dishonestly predicts how the dishonesty of behaviour will grow in the future.

At the same time, one finds that a person begins to lie more often, only when she / he says untruth for her/ his own good. If she / he does this solely in favour of someone else, then the scale of the lies does not increase. This is consistent with the hypothesis that when people cheat for the sake of others, they recognise this behaviour as morally acceptable.

Thus, only a lie for personal gain has the property of growing. It is suggested that the same mechanism can develop a craving for risk and / or aggressive behaviour. UNIT

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Addendum II :

INTELLECTUAL HUMILITY? ( i.e. a modest opinion of one’s own importance or rank – or not).

To scale this, the scale should include: cognitive, affective, behavioural, and motivational components of the construct that has been identified by various philosophers in their conceptual analyses of ‘intellectual humility’. One finds that intellectual humility has four core dimensions:

Open-mindedness (versus Arrogance)

Intellectual Modesty (versus Vanity)

Corrigibility (versus Fragility)

Engagement (versus Boredom)

Note that Intellectual Modesty is uniquely related to Narcissism. q(C-I) Secret Intelligence Service.

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THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN PERIODS OF GENOCIDE-RELATED EXPOSURE AND SUICIDE RISK : The association between periods of genocide-related exposures and suicide risk remains unknown. One study test we examined (because it is useful for us to do this for discussion purposes), tested this association using a national population-based study design.

The source population comprised of all persons born during years1922-1945, in Nazi-occupied or dominated European nations, that immigrated to Israel by 1965, were identified in the Population Register (N = 220,665), and followed up for suicide to 2014, totaling 16,953,602 person-years.
The population was disaggregated to compare a trauma gradient among groups that immigrated before (indirect, n = 20,612, 9%); during (partial direct, n = 17,037, 8%); or after (full direct, n = 183,016, 83%) exposure to the Nazi era. Also, the direct exposure groups were examined regarding pre- or post-natal exposure periods. Cox regression models were used to compute Hazard Ratios (HR) of suicide risk to compare the exposure groups, adjusting for confounding by gender, residential SES and history of psychiatric hospitalisation.

In the total population, only the partial direct exposure subgroup was at greater risk compared to the indirect exposure group (HR = 1.73, 95% CI, 1.10, 2.73; P < .05). That effect replicated in six sensitivity analyses.

In addition, sensitivity analyses showed that exposure at ages 13 plus among females, and follow-up by years since immigration were associated with a greater risk; whereas in-utero exposure among persons with no psychiatric hospitalisation and early post-natal exposure among males were at a reduced risk.

Tentative mechanisms impute bio-psychosocial vulnerability and natural selection during early critical periods among males, and profound feelings of guilt and entrapment and /or defeat among females.

(C-I) Secret Intelligence Service.

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BUDDIES, ARE WE? NOT? WELL, IT REALLY DEPENDS ON WHO ELSE YOU KNOW.

Human friendship is caused, in part, by cognitive mechanisms designed to assemble support groups for potential conflicts.
One can use game theory to identify computations about friends that can increase performance in multi-agent conflicts. Such analysis suggests that people would benefit from : (I) ranking friends, (II) hiding friend-ranking, and (III) ranking friends according to their own position in partners’ rankings.
These possible tactics motivate the hypotheses that people possess egocentric and ‘allocentric’ representations of the social world (simply – having one’s interest and attention centred on other persons), that people are motivated to conceal this information, and that egocentric friend-ranking (having one’s interest and attention centred on oneself) is determined by allocentric representations of partners’ friend-rankings.
In other words, people’s rankings of say their ten closest friends will be predicted by their own perceived rank among their partners’ other friends. This relationship remains strong after controlling for a variety of other factors such as perceived similarity, familiarity, and benefits.
Where does this fit in with allegiances that appear to define geo-political realities?

(C-I) Secret Intelligence Service.

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SELF-DECEPTION

Self-deception (false beliefs regarding abilities) is widespread across civilisation even though it can lead to disastrous consequences. Why is this potentially harmful trait so common?
One can think of this thus; that self-deception has evolved so to facilitate the deception of others.
Over-confident individuals are overrated by observers and under-confident individuals are judged by observers to be worse than they actually are. qOne can assert that people may not always reward the more accomplished individual, but rather the more self-deceived. qIf over-confident individuals are more likely to be risk-prone then by promoting them one may be creating institutions, including armies, that are more vulnerable to risk.
One therefore has to utilise practical solutions for assessing individuals and which circumvent the influence of self-deception.

(C-I) Secret Intelligence Service

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DECEPTION :

The question is > Can deceitful intentions be discriminated from truthful ones? <
It has been consistently demonstrated that deceiving others is accompanied by both nervousness / stress and cognitive load. Both are related to increased sympathetic nervous system activity. One can assert that sympathetic nervous system activity already rises during intentions to lie and, consequently, cues to deception can be detected before stating an actual lie.
One can monitor sympathetic nervous system activity during lying, during truth telling, and during truth telling with the aim of lying at a later instance.
Electro-dermal activity (the property of the human body that causes continuous variation in the electrical characteristics of the skin) can be used as an indicator.
Electro-dermal activity is highest during lying, and compared to a truth condition, electro-dermal activity is also raised during the intention to deceive. Moreover, the switch from truth telling toward lying in the intention condition evokes higher electro-dermal activity than switching toward non-deception related tasks in a lie or truth condition.
>> Such provides empirical evidence that increased sympathetic nervous system activity related to deception can be monitored before a lie is stated. <<
This implies that cues to deception are already present during the mere intention to lie.

(C-I) Secret Intelligence Service

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FLASHBACKS AND OTHER RE-EXPERIENCING SYMPTOMS THAT CHARACTERISE PTSD.

Targeting the consolidation of fear memories following trauma may offer a promising method for preventing the development of flashbacks and other re-experiencing symptoms that characterise Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. Research has demonstrated that performing visuo-spatial tasks after analogue trauma can block the consolidation of fear memory and reduce the frequency of flashbacks. However, little to no research has yet used verbal techniques to alter memories during the consolidation window. This is surprising given that the most effective treatments for PTSD are verbally-based with exposure therapy, and trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy gaining the most evidence of efficacy. Psychological therapies aim to reduce the conditioned fear response, which is in keeping with the preliminary finding that an increased propensity for fear conditioning may be a vulnerability factor for PTSD.

One recent research programme investigated the degree to which individual differences in fear conditioning predict the development of PTSD symptoms. Also compared the preventative effects of two clinically informed psychological techniques administered during the consolidation window, these being : exposure to the trauma memory, and updating the meaning of the trauma. 115 healthy participants underwent a fear conditioning paradigm in which traumatic film stimuli (unconditioned stimuli) were paired with neutral stimuli (conditioned stimuli). Participants were randomly allocated to an updating, exposure or control group to compare the effects on the conditioned fear response and on PTSD symptomatology.

The results showed that stronger conditioned responses at acquisition significantly predicted the development of PTSD symptoms. The updating group, who verbally devalued the unconditioned stimulus within the consolidation window, experienced significantly lower levels of PTSD symptoms during follow-up than the exposure and control groups. These findings are consistent with clinical interventions for chronic PTSD and have important implications for identifying those at risk as well as for designing novel early interventions to prevent the development of PTSD.

(C-I) Secret Intelligence Service.

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FIREARM RELATED DESIRE, call it gun ownership, fetishism, if you like. Well, one consideration, apart from criminal elements; is that society en-masse is continually bombarded with what has power to overwhelm and to dominate by exploiting fractures in the human psyche, literally paralyzing the will to resist. The point being that real time heroes who are armed are also their audience, the latter who by participating, do internalize and value this ‘power fantasy’ (often hyper-male). We can police the effects, the owning of these weapons, but the cause of the character lived out as a consequence (the desire to own) is not easy to change, if at all. The ones responsible for facilitating this know all too well and whether their motivation comes from contempt, desire to undermine and so on, is open to scrutiny. Often they are foreign states, actors of foreign states, often commercial organisations, ideologically bereft actors and groups, some within and often elsewhere, etc. For example; in certain computer games the participant becomes the killer, often the mass-killer and rewarded for being so – the use of firearms has no limitation and the sensation of their use is felt. Couple this with the plethora of images, living images, and statements from abroad (and here too) which act to reinforce the very opposite of our zero-tolerance cultural norm. The ones affected via this route will not only seek to own firearms (which they cannot) but seek for and possess the skills to make them.
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Notes from Seminar. 02 11 2017. Harrogate.

NO WRITING OR RECORDING MATERIALS.
Prepare the following :
(I) Tell of at least eight important events in your life (biographical facts, feelings, plans, meetings, etc.) AND what TV shows you watch, what newspapers and magazines you read.
Time : Ten minutes mental preparation.
Presentation to Unit.
(II) If you were to be locked in a room for an indefinite period of time, what four books or films would you take with you and why?
Time : Five minutes mental preparation.
Presentation to Unit.
(III) Discuss with the Unit the most important foreign political events of the current year.
Time: Five minutes mental preparation.
Presentation to Unit. q(IV) Assess your role in the conditions of the changes taking place in the United Kingdom and in the world. Discuss with Unit.

Time : Five minutes mental preparation.

Presentation to Unit.

(V) Name five of your positive qualities and the same negative that you would like to eliminate and the reason why.
Time : Five minutes mental preparation.
Presentation to Unit.
Coffee.

(C-I) Secret Intelligence Service

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QUESTION : Can a satisfactory account of qualitative experience ever be achieved? How is this consideration relevant to us?

Erwin Schrödinger, a theoretical physicist and one of the leading pioneers of quantum mechanics, also published in the areas of colorimetry and colour perception.
The sensation of colour cannot be accounted for by the physicist’s objective picture of light-waves. Could the physiologist account for it, if she / he had fuller knowledge than she / he has of the processes in the retina and the nervous processes set up by them in the optical nerve bundles and in the brain? It is not likely.
Schrödinger continues on to say that subjective experiences do not form a one-to-one correspondence with stimuli. For example, light of wavelength in the neighborhood of 590 nm produces the sensation of yellow, whereas exactly the same sensation is produced by mixing red light, with wavelength 760 nm, with green light, at 535 nm. From this he concludes that there is no numerical connection with these physical, objective characteristics of the waves and the sensations they produce.
Schrödinger concludes with a proposal of how it is that we might arrive at the mistaken belief that >> a satisfactory theoretical account of qualitative experience has – or might ever – be achieved. <<

(C-I) Secret Intelligence Service

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Notes / extract from the Seminar 01 11 2017. Brodsworth. (Information that was tendered for discussion, not conclusions).

(I) Does knowledge gained via a computer / machine fully encompass internal states? What about the cognitive changes that constitute emotional reacting to the world? Might a computer clumsily summarize what is actually a complex rearranging in the psyche?
A mental model is an explanation of someone’s thought process about how something works in the real world. It is a representation of the surrounding world, the relationships between its various parts and a person’s intuitive perception about her or his own acts and their consequences.
A mental model is a kind of internal symbol or representation of external reality, hypothesized to play a major role in cognition, reasoning and decision-making.
The image of the world around us, which we carry in our head, is just a model. Nobody can, in her / his head imagine all the world, government or nation. She / he has only selected concepts, and relationships between them, and uses those to represent the real system.
Edmond Wright is a philosopher who considers the inter-subjective aspect of perception. From John Locke onward it had been normal to frame perception problems in terms of a single subject S looking at a single entity E with a property p.

However, if we begin with the facts of the differences in sensory registration from person to person, coupled with the differences in the criteria we have learned for distinguishing what we together call the same things, then a problem arises of how two persons align their differences on these two levels so that they can still get a practical overlap on parts of the real about them, in particular, update each other about them.

(II) Subjectivity, is the way that the person expresses her/himself, constantly undergoing change, though still retaining constant characteristics, depending upon who has the potential to affect their subjectivity. This is true, that subjectivity is constantly undergoing change, because what makes up psychic experience is a wide range of perceptions, sensations, emotions, thoughts and beliefs, that, through the passage of time, and relation to space, constantly generates transformation in terms of the subjective relation to the world.

>>To subject experience to fundamental, critical scrutiny: to take nothing for granted and to show the warranty for what we claim to know.<<
The phenomenological method serves to momentarily erase the world of speculation by returning the subject to her or his primordial experience of the matter, whether the object of enquiry is a feeling, an idea, or a perception. According to Edmund Husserl the suspension of belief in what people ordinarily take for granted or infer by conjecture diminishes the power of what is customarily embraced as objective reality.

(C-I) Secret Intelligence Service

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STRATEGY : An appeal to fear (argumentum ad metum or argumentum in terrorem) is a fallacy in which a person attempts to create support for an idea by using deception and propaganda in attempts to increase fear and prejudice toward a ‘competitor’.

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Notes from Seminar. 31 10 2017. Brodsworth. (Arguments introduced for discussion, not conclusions arrived at).

In current artificial intelligence and philosophy of mind, ‘intentionality’ – is a controversial subject and sometimes claimed to be something that a machine will never achieve. The philosopher John Searle argued for this position with the Chinese room thought experiment, according to which no syntactic operations that occurred in a computer would provide it with semantic content. Others are more sceptical of the human ability to make such an assertion, arguing that the kind of intentionality that emerges from self-organizing networks of automata will always be undecidable because it will never be possible to make our subjective introspective experience of intentionality and decision-making coincide with our objective observation of the behaviour of a self-organizing machine. Superintelligence is defined as an “intellect that is much smarter than the best human brains in practically every field, including scientific creativity, general wisdom and social skills.” The definition does not specify the means by which superintelligence could be achieved: whether biological, technological, or some combination. Neither does it specify whether or not superintelligence requires self-consciousness or experience-driven perception. The trans-humanist movement distinguishes between weak and strong superintelligence. Weak superintelligence operates on the level of human brains, but much faster. Strong superintelligence operates on a superior level, as a human brain is considered qualitatively superior to that of a dog (?). Simply put, profoundly gifted people are referred to as being superintelligent. Clever search algorithms are ofentimes considered to be superintelligent. While these outstanding people or machines have an advantage over average human brains, they do not qualify as superintelligence, as they do not have superior abilities in cognition or creativity. The scientific community is heterogeneous, not a singular entity, and cannot be referred to as superintelligence.

(C-I) Secret Intelligence Service

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DELUSIONS : WHO AND WHAT? (brief extract from Seminar ; ‘Manipulating the Life World of People’ 29 10 2017. Harrogate)

Well, it appears that it is not what is the case that one often has to contend, but what really is NOT the case: A DELUSION is a belief held with strong conviction despite superior evidence to the contrary. Unlike hallucinations, delusions are always pathological (the result of an illness or illness process). As pathology, it is distinct from a belief based on false or incomplete information, confabulation, dogma, illusion, or other effects of perception.

DELUSIONS typically occur in the context of neurological or mental illness, although they are not tied to any particular disease and have been found to occur in the context of many pathological states (both physical and mental). However, they are of particular diagnostic importance in psychotic disorders including schizophrenia, manic episodes of bipolar disorder, and psychotic depression.

(C-I) Secret Intelligence Service

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LOOKING AT AND REACTING TO SOMEONE’S MUG. Or otherwise stated, the face is central to the experience of emotion

Perceiving others in action, whether in daily contexts like seeing a commuter run to catch a train, or in highly refined artistic settings, such as watching a skilled dancer perform on stage, evokes both explicit and implicit affective responses in observers. Quantifying observers’ affective experiences presents an experimental challenge, as such evaluations are subjective and shaped by many factors, including experience, expectations, and context. Most rely on participants’ explicit, self-reported affective experience. However, self-reports are prone to memory and response biases that can compromise accuracy. Moreover, the act of reporting an affective experience engages participants in a secondary self-reflective task that has the potential to contaminate both overt behavioural results and covert measures of affective experience.
One method that offers a promising way to circumvent the issues associated with subjective self-report is facial electromyography, which provides a sensitive means to measure observers’ affective experience. This technique measures electrical activity related to muscle tension and can assess subtle expressions of emotion, such as those associated with different affective states. Importantly, EMG measures offer the ability to capture minute shifts in emotion or affective state that may not reach an observer’s threshold for self-report, meaning that EMG may offer a way to measure nascent valenced evaluations of complex stimuli, even when they do not have obvious (or yet-discernable) affective elements. The face is central to the experience of emotion. Thus, facial expressions, such as smiles or frowns, are key indicators of affective experience in humans.

(C-I) Secret Intelligence Service

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WHY TRUST ATTRACTIVENESS? BETTER STATED; WHY IS IT USEFUL TO US?

Does attractiveness signal trustworthiness? There is ample research suggesting that people attribute a variety of characteristics to others on the basis of physical attractiveness.
In general, studies suggest that people attribute positive characteristics—intelligence, competence, leadership skills, etc. to attractive persons. In economics, multiple studies show that attractiveness pays off in the market place, and this has been tagged a “beauty premium.” Political scientists, too, have noted a beauty premium for candidates – looks can drive election results (at least at the margin).
A survey of the literature leads one to conclude; current analysis suggests that physical attractiveness activates a stereotype that influences judgments of a candidate in a relatively direct manner. However, it is possible that the effect of the physical attractiveness stereotype on candidate evaluation is mediated by selective encoding, biased interpretation, biased elaboration, and / or selective retrieval of a candidate’s issue stances.
Studies point to middle level theories about how stereotypes might mediate behaviour and judgments. These theories point to ways in which people develop stereotypes about attractiveness. This gives rise to the idea that there is a beauty premium for attractive people, based on expectations about what attractive people are like (e.g., they have greater leadership skills, they are friendlier, they are more competent, etc.).
In the field of evolutionary psychology. Drawing on animal behaviour and inferences based on selection pressures in evolution, three types of arguments are offered as to why attractiveness might be something that catches the human eye. These arguments focus on good genes, parental investment and status, and suggest reasons why people are pre-disposed to attend to beauty.

The good genes argument points to attractiveness as a signal of genetic quality for purposes of mating.

The parental investment argument points to differential investment strategies by parents in their offspring. Early choices about nutrition lead to life-long effects on characteristics like height and symmetry – features that others find to be attractive.
Finally, there is an argument that attractiveness is a visible marker conferring status.
All three arguments similarly focus on attractiveness as a visible signal for humans. It is a signal to which we are predisposed to be attentive (as said, often for purposes of mating and genetic fitness).
What do these arguments mean?
Can attractiveness signal trust or trustworthiness?
In a game theoretic sense attractiveness is a credible signal only if it contains information about whether a person can be trusted, and if it cannot be faked. it is suggested that people are attentive to attractiveness and they may well infer that such people are trustworthy. It is well established that people ascribe positive characteristics to those who are more attractive
If attractive people act in a manner consistent with expectations, then attractiveness is a credible signal.

Do strangers use attractiveness as means of discriminating their trust? If so then do attractive second movers obtain a beauty premium by being trusted more than unattractive second movers?

Are attractive trustees more likely to reciprocate?

Does reciprocity depend on the attractiveness of the truster?
>> One can examine these questions in what is described as a ‘laboratory trust game experiment’. <<

(C-I) Secret Intelligence Service

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ARE WE ‘TRAPPED IN OUR FACES’? WELL …NOT NECESSARILY. (C-I)

(I) To an extent we are trapped in our faces, because controlled processes are very demanding, and even when these demands are met, controlled processes are not always capable of saving us from our faces. But we are not doomed yet. It is suggested that one relatively automatic, uncontrolled way in which the influence of physiognomic information might be diminished is ‘reading into faces’ (RIF). Thus, one of the consequences of RIF is that strong verbal information changes the perception of the face and, hence, the physiognomic information derived from it. So it is possible that, in the long run, verbal and non-verbal information might change the physiognomic information conveyed by one’s face and, hence, ‘untrap’ it. Personally, one finds the prospect of not being trapped in one’s face quite encouraging.
(II) Ambiguous verbal information about a target is interpreted by physiognomic information. A judgment, based on this interpreted information and on the physiognomic information, is made with a high degree of confidence. This (by now) quite confident judgment will, in turn, be stored in memory as information about the person judged. The stored judgment, as well as the stored interpreted verbal information, are likely to be recalled the next time an interaction with the target takes place. It is also likely that in this interaction, the individual’s face (and hence physiognomic information) will be available. Thus, in this interaction the physiognomic information is present in many different places: in the stored judgment, the stored verbal information, and the face itself.

(III) “There are some people whose faces bear the stamp of such artless vulgarity and baseness of character, such an animal limitation of intelligence, that one wonders how they can appear in public with such a countenance, instead of wearing a mask.” Schopenhauer, A. (1942). ‘Complete Essays of Schopenhauer. p. 63.  (C-I) Secret Intelligence Service

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A quote from the 19th century :

”Some Abnormal Characteristics of IDIOTS and the Methods Adopted in Obviating Them” by H.B. Wilbur, a Presentation at the Frankfort Meeting of the Association of Medical Officers of American Institutions for IDIOTIC AND FEEBLE MINDED PERSONS, 1883.
>> Note that this is merely an example only to illustrate bygone thinking (in this case 19th century thinking) and does not reflect ours. (C-I) <<

“It has been expressed heretofore the opinion, that of congenital cases of IDIOCY (especially those of low type), while the physical cause is often spoken of as an arrest of development, the abnormal incompleteness is more commonly dependent either on injury to the foetus, or on some disease occurring during foetal life. The brain, then, being formed late in the order of development is more likely to suffer from any injury to or diseases of the foetus than other portions of the nervous system. This may be true of extreme cases of incompleteness in the nervous masses, the monstrosities recorded from time to time; yet, judging by my own experience, I cannot but regard the majority of cases submitted to my care as less the result of disease or injury than of ill-nourishment of the foetus. Sometimes it is due to general weakness in the reproductive organs of either parent – sometimes due to the fact that the maternal energy is wasted in other directions; as, for example, exhaustive physical or mental labour, anxiety, or even conformity to the unnatural requirements of modern social life.

In IDIOTS, then, of low degree we might predicate imperfection and infirmity of the general nervous system in conductive and ganglionic power. At all events, in some extreme cases of IDIOCY there is this defect. Let me give a few illustrations. In a report for 1850, was described the case of an ADULT IDIOT, who sometimes in cramming food into his mouth caught his fingers between his teeth, and, not knowing what pained him, used to howl and bite harder and harder until he was severely hurt. It is not an infrequent circumstance to see IDIOTS of low grade when angry, beat themselves. You have all doubtless seen cases where flies settling on the face would excite no movement of the facial muscles, no apparent sense of uneasiness. In one of my early reports I described a case where the function of deglutition was ill-performed. The eyeball could be touched without exciting the act of winking. The same girl had never walked or even sat up without support on all sides. She could not maintain her equilibrium under any circumstances, and when unsupported would always fall obedient to the law of gravitation, without moving a muscle to save herself from injury. I have in other cases tried explosions of various sorts, where neither the flash nor the noise would produce winking. The reflex movement in this case being dependent upon sight and hearing, and these special senses being inactive, the necessary stimulus to the reflex movement was wanting. In some of the cases that have fallen under my observation the responsive movement is not distinctly purposive, but rather a vague convulsive motion of all the limbs when one is irritated. It has seemed to me that, as a rule, the lower extremities have responded more promptly to irritation than the upper.

In pulmonary affections, in our lowest class of cases, the cough is often wanting; in other words, the irritation of the mucous membrane which should produce a cough, as a reflex, fails to do so, These are the simpler forms of reflex action requiring no very complicated nervous apparatus. I have mentioned that in extreme cases of idiocy this apparatus may be defective and the function ill-performed. Yet these movements are so essential to the sustenance of life, that IDIOTS who have vitality enough to reach an institution-attending age will generally manifest these reflex movements, though perhaps with less than normal promptness.”

from : “Some Abnormal Characteristics of IDIOTS and the Methods Adopted in Obviating Them” by H.B. Wilbur, a Presentation at the Frankfort Meeting of the Association of Medical Officers of American Institutions for Idiotic and Feeble-minded Persons, 1883.

(C-I) Secret Intelligence Service

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JUDGING A BOOK BY ITS COVER IS A RISKY STRATEGY :

>> TRUST NO ONE <<
But in a general sense, is this strategy so simply adhered to?
One’s relying on deliberate signals such as smiles and / or the signalling properties of characteristics such as gender or race and ethnicity is naive. Such signals are little more than cheap talk in that they convey no credible information about the strategy of the counterpart.
A smile is easily mimicked but perhaps not easily faked and as a consequence, should serve both those who are and those who are not trustworthy. Gender and race are more difficult to mimic, but no more informative than a smile. Although people may have powerful stereotypes (expectations) about populations with these phenotypic markers, they may do little to inform the decision about trusting a specific individual.
Really, one should be at least curious about whether anything at all can be inferred based solely on a surface judgment, and whether these judgments are correct. Most are not curious.
Further, what of an easily observable, seemingly non-credible, but difficult to mimic, aspect of people: their attractiveness?
It is the case that decisions about whom to trust are in fact biased by stable facial traits such as attractiveness. Research addressing the validity of facial trustworthiness or its basis in facial features is scarce, and the results have been inconsistent.
One can measure facial (bizygomatic) width (scaled for face height) because this is a sexually dimorphic, testosterone-linked trait predictive of male aggression.
Men with greater facial width are more likely to exploit the trust of others and that others are less likely to trust male counterparts with wide rather than narrow faces (independent of their attractiveness).

(C-I) Secret Intelligence Service

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Time to read a few books :

Series titled – “The Classification of Secrecy is Removed” 2011-2016, History, Military history, Special Services, FB2
Russian language
Number of Books: 45
Description: “The Classification of Secrecy is Removed” – a series of documentary literature, written on archival sources, from which the classification of secrecy is removed.
Interesting and informative, but even more interesting, probably, would be a series – “The Classification of Secrecy is NOT removed.”

Who are they – “fighters of the invisible front”? Those whose names are hidden behind the operative pseudonyms, always remaining in the shadow of their exploits … The truth about them oftentimes not even known by the people closest to them. But near there were traitors, enemy agents and spies, who in their homeland were also proudly called “scouts”. 

Antonov. Female Fate of Intelligence

Antonov. Life of the “legend”
Antonov. The life truth of intelligence
Antonov. Executed Intelligence
Antonov. From them intelligence began
Antonov. The chiefs of Soviet foreign intelligence
Antonov, V. Karpov. Secret informants of the Kremlin
Arabadzhiev, A. Kulanov. Black belt without security classification and more

(C-I) Secret Intelligence Service

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EMOTION IN THE CRIMINAL PSYCHOPATH. >fear image processing<

While testing the hypothesis that the response mobilisation that normally accompanies imagery of emotional situations is deficient in psychopaths. Cardiac, electrodermal, and facial muscle responses of 54 prisoners, assigned to low- and high-psychopathy groups using R. D. Hare’s (1991) Psychopathy Checklist–Revised, were recorded while subjects imagined fearful and neutral scenes in a cued sentence-processing task.
Groups did not differ on self-ratings of fearfulness, imagery ability, or imagery experience.
Low-psychopathy subjects showed larger physiological reactions during fearful imagery than high-psychopathy subjects.
Extreme scores on the antisocial behavior factor of psychopathy predicted imagery response deficits.

Results are consistent with the idea that semantic and emotional processes are dissociated in psychopaths

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UNIT : Meaningful research to advance the field of the behavioural and social aspects of terrorism has to be; interdisciplinary,

empirical,

controlled,

ethical,

conducted across levels of analysis,

directed at root causes and modifiable risk factors along the entire chain of causality, from historical forces to childhood influences, to the moment of a terrorist act.

(C-I). UNIT. 11 10 2017

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Consider a series of tests : Each test with different conditions and importantly, the amount of remuneration. It is possible to record that the number of untruthful test subjects grow with each test.

As a result, when a person cheats for her / himself, every time she / he lies more and more often. At the same time, the signal in the brain amygdala decreases, each time, that is, the brain adapts to the ever increasing scale of the lie. The degree of decrease in the sensitivity of the amygdala when deciding to act dishonestly predicts how the dishonesty of behaviour will grow in the future.
At the same time, one finds that a person begins to lie more often, only when she / he says untruth for her/ his own good. If she / he does this solely in favour of someone else, then the scale of the lies does not increase. This is consistent with the hypothesis that when people cheat for the sake of others, they recognise this behaviour as morally acceptable.

Thus, only a lie for personal gain has the property of growing. It is suggested that the same mechanism can develop a craving for risk and / or aggressive behaviour. UNIT

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IT TAKES LONGER TO LIE. WHY? Despite the amount of research investigating lying in general, such as lie detection / polygraph, the social psychology of lying, and the linguistics and philosophy of lying, very little work has been conducted on HOW people actually lie.

One ought really to address the imbalance by investigating >> why people take longer to lie than to tell the truth. <<
In this, there are three possible conclusions to adopt :
(I) Lying involves suppressing truthful information and suppressing or rejecting a default response will increase response time.
(II) There can be costs associated with choosing to tell the truth, just as there can be with choosing to lie. People therefore maintain that the decision to depart from the normal type of communication can be costly, and while this will often be a cost associated with a decision to lie, it is not an obligatory component of lying.

(III) Lying often requires more choice in generating a response than does telling the truth. There is typically only one truth – but there are many possible lie options. Making a choice regarding which lie to use is a difficult job and contributes to the longer time needed to tell a lie. UNIT

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THE ISSUE OF LIES :

The question of how dishonesty spreads through social networks is relevant to relationships, organizations, and society at large. Individuals may not consider that their own minor lies contribute to a broader culture of dishonesty. Research in this is noteworthy because honesty is identified as a universal value. To understand how social and cultural standards for dishonesty may form in spite of the universal moral of truthfulness, one can point to an important distinction between two types of social norms, which are. ‘Injunctive norms’ referring to actions that people generally approve of, while ‘descriptive norms’ referring to actions that people generally engage in. The results of certain recent studies indicate that descriptive norms for dishonesty can vary even as the injunctive norm for honesty remain constant. > Thus, if societies are to truly uphold the virtue of honesty, individuals will need to pull together to expose lies when they occur, and prevent them from quietly weaving themselves into the social fabric. < UNIT

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“REBELLIOUS HYSTERIA” – 1960s. It was in 1967, when the head of the Tavistock Institute of Human Relations, London, was Dr. Fred Emery, an expert on the ‘hypnotic effects of television’. Dr. Emery was particularly struck by what he observed of crowd behaviour at rock concerts, which were a relatively new phenomenon at that time. Emery referred to the audiences as ‘swarming adolescents.’ He was absolutely convinced that this behaviour could effectively be refined and used so to bring down hostile or uncooperative governments, no less. Emery wrote an article about this for the Tavistock Institute’s journal; Human Relations, which he titled, “The Next Thirty Years: Concepts, Methods and Anticipations.” The article details ways in which to safely channel and / or directly manipulate what he termed ‘rebellious hysteria.’ UNIT

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What is ESPIONAGE?

Why the negative connotation of the SPY? Espionage is the unlawful intelligence activity of agencies (their agents) of foreign states, which, as a rule, involves the abduction of officially classified information (state secrets) by special services of other states. A spy is a person who is engaged in a hidden collection of information about one of the conflicting parties in favour of the other party. A general negative connotation does appear to prevail. Why? One might ponder. The word ‘spy’ is often presented in a negative light, and equally often, accepted as such, because the word ‘spy’ connects it with certain behaviour – eavesdropping, peeping, entering into trust and abuse of it, insidiousness, deceit, all condemned by the generally accepted ethic in society. Of course, there is more to it…..

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A note on BIOTERROR definition :

There is no commonly accepted definition of bioterrorism. Bioterrorism is assumed to involve the threat or use of biological agents by individuals or groups motivated by political, religious, ecological, or other ideological objectives. This definition differs in several significant ways from many of the widely accepted definitions of terrorism. Official definitions of terrorism generally emphasise that terrorism is intended to intimidate governments or societies. In essence; the core of terrorism is the ability to terrorize. >> A definition of bioterrorism therefore does not require such a motivation, although it also does not exclude it. << A definition that focuses on political intimidation fails to capture two significant motivations for bioterrorism. First, some terrorists are attracted to biological weapons because they understand that pathogens could cause mass casualties on an unprecedented scale. Official definitions appear to exclude groups with apocalyptic visions who are uninterested in influencing governments and seek instead to inflict mass casualties. Traditional terrorists use violence as a means to an end. In contrast, proponents of catastrophic terrorism view mass killing as the desired end. Groups of this type are not common, yet they do exist. Second, other terrorists are attracted to unique features of bioterrorism that have nothing to do with the intended psychological impact of biological weapons use. They see biological agents as a tool for achieving specialized objectives not necessarily intended to directly influence government actions. Virtually all bioterrorists seek to keep their use of biological agents a secret, because in many instances success depended on the lack of appreciation that a disease outbreak was intentional. A bioterrorist can include any non-state actor who uses or threatens to use biological agents on behalf of a political, religious, ecological, or other ideological cause without reference to its moral or political justice. This includes non-state actors who operate in organised military units (as with guerrillas) if biological agent use was undertaken with covert, improvised delivery means. UNIT

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REGARDING THE CONSUMPTION OF EXTREMIST MATERIAL : Disturbingly, according to the recent Policy Exchange study, online jihadist propaganda achieves more views in the U.K. than in any other European country. The implications of which, being the aggravated possession and / or persistent consumption of extremist ideology, The U.K. is ranked No.5 in the world scale of audiences accessing online extremist material, behind Turkey, the USA, Saudi Arabia and Iraq.

The report suggests that 74 percent of the 2,000 U.K. citizens it surveyed would support new laws to criminalize the persistent consumption of extremist material online.

It is an offence to possess information that could assist a would-be terrorist under Section 58 of the Terrorism Act 2000, however, it is currently not illegal to possess material which glorifies terrorism. The latest terror attack at Parsons Green Tube station, London, could, it can be unequivocally argued, underscore the ever-present nature of this threat. Further, that this matter is extremely urgent and the status quo is obviously unacceptable.

The 130-page Policy Exchange report highlights the fact that the Islamic State produces in excess of 100 pieces of slick propaganda, including various ‘articles’ and videos, per week.

The collapse of Islamic State positions in Syria and Iraq has not deterred the manufacture of more terrorist content. The production of content has continued on, despite the demise of key figures, the loss of territory and ongoing fighting.

Needless to say that the implementing of new laws criminalizing the aggravated possession and / or persistent consumption of extremist ideology, are on the near horizon.

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VIOLENT VIDEO GAMES : Do provide a forum for learning and practicing aggressive solutions to conflict situations. The effect of violent video games appears to be cognitive in nature. In the short term, playing a violent video game appears to affect aggression by priming aggressive thoughts. Longer-term effects are likely to be longer lasting as well, as the player learns and practices new aggression-related scripts that become more and more accessible for use when real-life conflict situations arise. If repeated exposure to violent video games does indeed lead to the creation and heightened accessibility of a variety of aggressive knowledge structures, thus effectively altering the person’s basic personality structure, the consequent changes in everyday social interactions may also lead to consistent increases in aggressive affect. The active nature of the learning environment of the video game suggests that this medium is potentially more dangerous than the more heavily investigated TV and movie media. With the recent trend toward greater realism and more graphic violence in video games and the rising popularity of these games, (I) one should be aware of these potential risks (II) Violent video games can be commandeered to both create and exaggerate the tendency. UNIT.

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VIOLENT-SEXIST VIDEO GAMES. Identification with Game Characters, Masculine Beliefs, and Empathy for Female Violence Victims : The investigation is in line with those previous, showing that VIOLENT VIDEO GAMES CAN DESENSITIZE INDIVIDUALS TO REAL LIFE VIOLENCE, including violence against women. More important, >> it moves beyond the question of whether violent games are harmful per se, to address the important questions of whom is most likely to be harmed by violent-sexist video games, and through what mechanism does the harm occur. << >>> Who in question we are referring to are players that identify with the violent-sexist game character. >> Results support the prediction that playing violent-sexist video games increases masculine beliefs and decreases empathy for female violence victims, especially for boys and young men who highly identify with the male game character. Previous investigations have shown that video games are especially likely to increase aggression among players who identify with violent game characters, and that a reduced empathy is one of the major predictors for aggression against women. Exposure to media violence is one of the many factors that can influence empathy levels. <<<<

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EFFECTS OF GENDER AND PERSONALITY ON FIRST IMPRESSION : In this investigation, was explored the relationship between individual differences (i.e., gender and personality traits) and trustworthiness judgments of unfamiliar and emotionally neutral faces. The results suggested that these judgments are affected by the gender of the perceiver, although this effect depends on the valence (Latin valent -, valens, present participle of valēre ‘to have strength’) of the face. Women tend to judge trustworthy-looking faces as significantly more trustworthy than do men. There were no gender differences for judgments of untrustworthy-looking or neutral faces. Moreover, unlike men, women’s trustworthiness judgments are also affected by the gender of the face. Specifically, women judge faces of other women as slightly more trustworthy, compared to male faces. This is a very important consideration.

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IDENTIFIABLE IMAGES OF BYSTANDERS EXTRACTED FROM CORNEAL REFLECTIONS – IMPLICATIONS

There is more on this research, but we need to consider if effective, where it would / might place us, vis a vis and hypothetically if we were subject to it. (C-III)
The dark and shiny areas of cornea are as a black mirror reflecting the surrounding environment off of it. Given the power of high-resolution photography, it is conceivable that these reflections could contain decipherable information , the kind that could help investigating crimes wherein victims are photographed, for example; hostage taking and / or child sex abuse. Research appears to be indicating that faces can be identified from even the poorest quality images.
Psychologists Rob Jenkins and Christie Kerr from York University asked volunteers to participate in a face-matching task to see if recognizable images could be extracted from extreme zoom-ins.
They were presented with highly pixelated , but still identifiable images drawn from the cornea of images taken by a 38 megapixel camera. On average, the whole-face area for the reflected bystanders was about 322 pixels. Remarkably, these images were reconstructed from a sliver of digital information about 30,000 times smaller than the subjects’ face.
Observers who were unfamiliar with the bystanders’ faces achieved 71% recognition accuracy, while those who were familiar were recorded at 84% accuracy. In a test of spontaneous recognition, they could accurately name a familiar face from an eye reflection image.
The researchers insist that the photos do not need to be taken at such a high megapixel rate. What’s more important, they say, is to find people familiar with the faces in question.

We should study the research in detail. (C-III)

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EXTRA LOW FREQUENCY WAVES. ELFs : Experiment : Volunteers can be wired so their brain waves can be measured via EEG. The volunteers are then sealed within a metal room that cannot be penetrated by any normal signal. If we beam ELF waves at the volunteers (ELFs travel through the earth and obviously by implication, through metal walls). The volunteers are not aware whether the signal is or is not being sent. We can observe the reactions in the metal room. A third of those within become severely affected by the ELF signal within 6.0 to 10.0 seconds (their behaviour following the changes already anticipated at these very precise frequencies). Basically such that : waves below 6 cycles per second cause the volunteers to become extremely emotional (upset), and with accompanying disruption of bodily functions. At 8.3 cycles per second, the volunteers experience elation (an extreme ‘high’, such as achieved via meditation). 11.0 to 11.3 cycles induce waves of depressed agitation, leading to riotous behaviour.

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Useful declassified documents : On the eve of the 70th anniversary of the beginning of the war against Nazi Germany (termed the Great Patriotic War), the Foreign Intelligence Service of the Russian Federation declassified the documents that arrived in the Kremlin in 1938-1941. These materials of Russian intelligence were included in the collection of documents “Aggression” (Ripol Classic Publishing House, 2011). The book includes about two hundred agency messages, texts of cipher telegrams, analytical notes and other declassified documents of the Russian SVR.

The author and compiler of the collection is Lev Sotskov, Major-General in retirement. As an external intelligence officer, he worked for a long time abroad and at senior positions in the central apparatus of the Service. Lev Filippovich is the author of a number of books on the activities of Soviet intelligence the day before and during the Second World War, as well as the compiler of the collections of declassified SVR of Russia documents “Baltic and geopolitics” (2009) and “Secrets of Polish politics” (2010). q>> The collection of documents included about two hundred agency messages, texts of encrypted telegrams, analytical notes and other declassified documents. <<

They testify that the foreign intelligence service did fulfill its main duty of timely informing the top leadership on the war issue.

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ARMED FORCES OF THE PEOPLE’S LIBERATION ARMY

Secret Intelligence Service. (C-IV)

Approximate structure of the PLA – The ground forces of the PLA are organised in seven military districts : Beijing, Shenyang, Lanzhou, Jinan, Nanjing, Guangzhou and Chengdu Folk – with the functions of commands in theatre. The composition of these districts include provincial military districts. The troops of the Beijing Military Region, intended for the defence of the capital and Inner Mongolia. On its territory there are military structure of the province of Hebei and Shanxi, as well as, a division of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Separate military-administrative units are the cities of Beijing and Tianjin. In the district include the 27th, 38th and 65th Armies. Commander of the district – 张仕波 (zhāng shì bō), Commissioner – 刘福 连 (liú fú lián). Army 27: 188, 235 mechanised brigades; 80, 82 Infantry Brigade; 7 Tank Brigade; 16 Artillery Brigade; air defence brigade. Army 38: 6 Armoured Division; 112, 113 mechanised divisions; 6 Artillery Brigade; air defence brigade; brigade of special purpose; 8 Army Aviation Regiment. 65 Army: 193 Mechanised Division, 195 Mechanised Brigade; 70, 196 Infantry Brigade; 1 Tank Brigade; 14 Artillery Brigade; air defence brigade. Shenyang Military District, for defence north-eastern borders of China. On its territory there are military structure of the province of Liaoning, Heilongjiang and Jilin, as well as some units Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. In the district include the 16th, 39th and 40th Army. Commander of the district – 王 教成 (wáng jiào chéng), Commissioner – 褚益民 (chǔ yì mín). Army 16: 49 and 69 Infantry Division; 48, 67, 68 mechanised brigades; 4 Tank Brigade; 10 Artillery Brigade; air defence brigade. 39 Army: 116 Mechanised Division, 190 and 202 mechanised brigades; 115 motorised infantry brigade; 3 Tank Brigade; 7 Artillery Brigade; air defence brigade; Special Purpose Regiment; 9 Regiment Army Aviation. Army 40: 118, 119, 191 Infantry Brigade; 5 Tank Brigade; 11 Artillery Brigade; air defence brigade. Jinan Military District, serves as a strategic reserve. On its territory there are military structure of the province of Shandong and Henan. In the district includes 20 th, 26 th and 54 th Army. Commander of the district – 赵宗岐 (zhào zōng qí), Commissioner – 杜 恒 岩 (dù héng yán). Army 20: 58, 60 mechanised brigades; 13 Tank Brigade; 2 Artillery Brigade; air defence brigade. 26 Army: 200 Mechanised Brigade; 77, 138, 199 motorised brigades; 8 Tank Brigade; 8 Artillery Brigade; air defence brigade; Special Purpose Regiment; 7 Regiment Army Aviation. Army 54: 127, 162 mechanised divisions; 160 Mechanised Brigade; 11 Tank Brigade; Artillery Brigade; air defence brigade; 1 regiment of army aviation. Lanzhou Military Region is focused on Mongolian, Central Asian and Pakistani direction. On its territory there are military structure of the province of Shaanxi, Gansu, Ningxia, Qinghai, as well as the Xinjiang provincial military district. The structure of the military district includes 21th, 47th Army, as well as SPVO. Commander of the district – 刘 粤军 (liú yuè jūn), Commissioner – 苗 华 (miáo huá). Army 21: 61 motorised division; 62 Mechanised Brigade; 12 Tank Brigade; Artillery Brigade; air defence brigade; 184 brigade of special purpose. 47 Army: 139 Mechanised Brigade; 55, 56 Infantry Brigade; 9 Tank Brigade; 15 Artillery Brigade; air defence brigade. Xinjiang Provincial Military District 6 Mechanised Division; 4, 6, 11 Infantry Division; 2 Artillery Brigade; air defence brigade; 3 Brigade Army Aviation; 1 independent regiment. Nanjing Military District, oriented to the east and south-east direction. On its territory there are military structure of the province of Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui, Fujian and Jiangxi. Separate military-administrative entity is Shanghai. In the district includes the 1st, 12th and 31th Army. Commander of the district – 蔡 英挺 (cài yīng tǐng), Commissioner – 郑卫平 (zhèng wèi píng). Army 1: 1 amphibious mechanised division; 178 Mechanised Brigade; 3 Motorised Brigade; 10 Tank Brigade; 9 artillery division; air defence brigade; 5 Army Aviation Brigade; EW team. Army 12: 34, 35 mechanised brigades; 36, 179 motorised brigades; 2 Tank Brigade; Artillery Brigade; air defence brigade. Army 31: 86, 91 motorised divisions; 92 motorised brigade; 14 Tank Brigade; 3 Artillery Brigade; air defence brigade; brigade of special purpose; Army Aviation Regiment 10. Guangzhou Military District, is focused on the southern direction and defence of the Vietnamese-Chinese border. On its territory there are military structure of the province of Hubei, Hunan, Guangdong, Guangxi and Hainan. In addition, subject to the command of the garrison in Hong Kong. In the district consists of 41 th and 42 th Army, as well as Hainan Provincial Military District. Commander of the district – 徐 粉 林 (xú fěn lín), Commissioner – 魏 亮 (wéi liàng). 41 Army: 123 Mechanised Division; 121 Motorised Division; 15 Tank Brigade; Artillery Brigade; air defence brigade. 42 Army: 124 amphibious mechanised division; 163 motorised infantry division; 16 Tank Brigade; 1 Artillery Brigade; air defence brigade; brigade of special purpose; 6 Brigade Army Aviation. Hainan Provincial Military District: 132 motorised brigade. Hong Kong Garrison: Infantry Brigade, Center Transport Management and Supply, the PLA Air Force helicopter unit; group of the Chinese Navy, as well as control center transport and logistics, and infantry units in Macau. Chendusky Military District protects the southern and south-westerly direction and defending the border with Vietnam, Laos, Burma, Nepal and India. Located within the county structure of military areas of Sichuan, Guizhou and Yunnan, as well as the military forces of the Tibetan provincial district. Separate military-administrative entity is the city of Chongqing. In the district includes the 13th and 14th Army, as well as Tibetan provincial military district. Commander of the district – 李作成 (lǐ zuò chéng), Commissioner – 朱福熙 (zhū fú xī). Army 13: 37, 149 motorised divisions; 17 Tank Brigade; Artillery Brigade; air defense brigade; brigade of special purpose; 2 Army Aviation Brigade. Army 14: 31, 40 Infantry Division; 18 Tank Brigade; 4 Artillery Brigade; air defence brigade. Tibetan provincial military district: 52, 53 Mountain Infantry Brigade; 54 Mechanised Brigade; 308 Artillery Regiment; anti-aircraft artillery regiment. Included here is a detailed block diagram of the armed forces of the People’s Liberation Army. China.

ARMED FORCES OF THE PEOPLE’S LIBERATION ARMY

Secret Intelligence Service. (C-IV)

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LOVE FOR THE SELF vs LOVE FOR THE OTHER? EXPLICIT PREFERENCE FOR THE OTHER (SOMEONE ELSE), WHILE ALL THE TIME PREFERENCE FOR THE SELF. (C-I)

‘Why is this relevant and how is it useful to us?’
Seminar topic. Harrogate. 23 11 2017
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It has been shown to be the case that explicitly, human beings prefer their favourite other over the self. >> Implicitly, however, human beings prefer the self over their favourite other – be it their spouse / partner, best friend, or child. <<
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Explicit preferences establish and cement interpersonal ties, whereas implicit preferences ensure automatic self-favouritism that can lead to self-preserving spontaneous behaviour.
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Among other instances of self-deception, it is suggested that the dissociation between implicit and explicit attitudes lends itself to self-deception by enabling people to express socially desirable attitudes, while nevertheless acting upon relatively inaccessible socially undesirable attitudes when they can maintain ‘plausible deniability’.
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‘Why is this relevant and how is it useful to us?’
Discussion topic. Harrogate. 23 11 2017

(C-I) Secret Intelligence Service

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WHAT OF EMOTIONS IN EVERYDAY LIFE? (C-I)

Although there has been decades of research aimed at establishing the causes and consequences of emotions in the laboratory, we can still ask the question; how much do we know about emotions in everyday life?
It has been shown to be the case (see research material) that a smartphone application can be used to monitor real-time emotions of an exceptionally large (N = 15,000+), and heterogeneous participants sample. During investigation, people’s everyday life appears to be profoundly emotional – participants experience at least one emotion 90% of the time. The most frequent emotion is joy, followed by love and anxiety. People experience positive emotions 2.5 times more often than negative emotions, but also experience positive and negative emotions simultaneously relatively frequently. It is possible to characterise the interconnections between people’s emotions using ‘network analysis’.
This approach to emotion research suggests that specific emotions can fall into the following categories :
(I) Connector emotions (e.g., joy), which stimulate same valence emotions while inhibiting opposite valence emotions
(II) Provincial emotions (e.g., gratitude), which stimulate same valence emotions only,
(III) Distal emotions (e.g., embarrassment), which have little interaction with other emotions and are typically experienced in isolation.
Providing both basic foundations and novel tools to the study of emotions in everyday life, these findings demonstrate that emotions are ubiquitous to life and can exist together and distinctly, which has important implications for both emotional interventions and theory.
Why is this useful to us – what more can we do with it?

Secret Intelligence Service (C-I)

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COMPASSION

Compassion has long been regarded as a core part of our humanity by contemplative traditions, and in recent years, it has received growing research interest. Following a recent review of existing conceptualisations, compassion has been defined as consisting of the following five elements :
(I) Recognising suffering
(II) Understanding the universality of suffering in human experience
(III) Feeling moved by the person suffering and emotionally connecting with their distress
(IV) Tolerating uncomfortable feelings aroused (e.g., fear, distress) so that we remain open to and accepting of the person suffering
(V) Acting or being motivated to act to alleviate suffering.

Secret Intelligence Service (C-I)

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LOVE FOR THE SELF versus LOVE FOR THE OTHER?

EXPLICIT PREFERENCE FOR THE OTHER (SOMEONE ELSE), WHILE ALL THE TIME PREFERENCE FOR THE SELF.
(C-I)
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It has been shown to be the case that explicitly, human beings prefer their favourite other over the self. >> Implicitly, however, human beings prefer the self over their favourite other – be it their spouse / partner, best friend, or child. <<
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Explicit preferences establish and cement interpersonal ties, whereas implicit preferences ensure automatic self-favouritism that can lead to self-preserving spontaneous behaviour.
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Among other instances of self-deception, it is suggested that the dissociation between implicit and explicit attitudes lends itself to self-deception by enabling people to express socially desirable attitudes, while nevertheless acting upon relatively inaccessible socially undesirable attitudes when they can maintain ‘plausible deniability’.
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‘Why is this relevant and how is it useful to us?’
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Discussion topic. Harrogate. 23 11 2017
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(C-I) Secret Intelligence Service

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FACEBOOK : WITH REGARD TO GENDER AND LANGUAGE – WOMEN ARE FOUND TO BE WARMER BUT NO LESS ASSERTIVE THAN ARE MEN. (C-I) SIS

It is demonstrable that in using a large social media dataset and open-vocabulary methods from computational linguistics, we can explore differences in language use across gender, affiliation, and assertiveness.
 .
For example, topics are analysed (groups of semantically similar words) across 10 million messages from over 52,000 Facebook users.
 .
Most language differs little across gender.
 .
However, topics most associated with self-identified female participants included; friends, family, and social life, whereas topics most associated with self-identified male participants included swearing, anger, discussion of objects instead of people, and the use of argumentative language.
 .
We can also plot male – and female – linked language topics along two interpersonal dimensions prevalent in gender research, which are : affiliation and assertiveness.
 .
In taking a sample sample of say 20,000 + Facebook users, we find substantial gender differences in the use of affiliative language and slight differences in assertive language. Language used more by self-identified females was interpersonally warmer, more compassionate, polite, and slightly more assertive in their language use, whereas language used more by self-identified males was colder, more hostile, and impersonal.
 .
In taking a sample sample of say 20,000 + Facebook users, we find substantial gender differences in the use of affiliative language and slight differences in assertive language. Language used more by self-identified females was inter-personally warmer, more compassionate, polite, and slightly more assertive in their language use, whereas language used more by self-identified males was colder, more hostile, and impersonal.
(C-I) Secret Intelligence Service

FACEBOOK : WITH REGARD TO GENDER AND LANGUAGE – WOMEN ARE FOUND TO BE WARMER BUT NO LESS ASSERTIVE THAN ARE MEN

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Memorandum. Unit

CORRUPTION : THE CONCEPT OF SUPER-ORDINATE IDENTITY AND CORRUPTION
Secret Intelligence Service (C-I) UNIT LEADER
Seminar. Harrogate. 1800 hrs. 24 11 2017
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CORRUPTION
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The decision to engage in corruption, that is, public and private corruption, nepotism and embezzlement is often attributed to rational actors maximizing benefits to themselves.
 .
However : The importance of reciprocal relationships in humans suggests that an actor may weigh the costs of harms of her / his corrupt behavior to individuals who may generate future benefits for her / him.
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One can hypothesize that actors who have a larger circle of actual and potential social partners will have more individuals to consider when generating harms and will thus be less likely to find corrupt acts permissible than actors with smaller circles of valued others. In so doing, using data from the World Values Survey and European Values Study it is possible to explore whether participants with a larger geographic identity, or of a greater number of group memberships (i.e. a larger scope of actual and potential social partners) are less likely to find accepting bribes permissible.
 .
One finds mixed support for this question / assertion, but consistently find that World Values Survey and European Values Study participants with local, country, continent, or world geographic identities are less likely to find accepting a bribe permissible than those with regional identities. >> That is, actors whose primary identities encompass more than their region find corruption less permissible. <<
 .
>> We should discuss the importance of considering an actor’s valuation of others while noting that establishing scopes of positive valuation is a precursor to predicting where actors will target benefits and shun costs. <<
 .
Secret Intelligence Service (C-I) UNIT LEADER
Seminar. Harrogate. 1800 hrs. 24 11 2017
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CORRUPTION : THE CONCEPT OF SUPER-ORDINATE IDENTITY AND CORRUPTION

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Secret Intelligence Service

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PLAUSIBLE DENIABILITY is a term used to denote the ability of people to deny knowledge of, or responsibility for a damnable action/s committed by others because of a lack of evidence that can confirm their participation, even if they were personally involved in or at least willfully ignorant of the actions.

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>>> CORRUPTION : Harassment bribes, paid by citizens to corrupt officers for services the former are legally entitled to, constitute one of the most widespread forms of corruption in many countries. Nation states have adopted different policies to address this form of corruption. While some countries make both the bribe giver and the bribe taker equally liable for the crime, others impose a larger penalty on corrupt officers. <<< (C-I)

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MIGHT THE CRIME FIT THE BRAIN?
IMPULSIVE MURDERERS VERSUS PREMEDITATED PSYCHOPATHS

What are the wider implications?

(C-I) Secret intelligence Service

While many behaviours can be unambiguously defined, labelling a behaviour as criminal is to define how the behaviour will be considered socially. That is, the very same behaviour that might not be deemed criminal in one social context (say, shooting a gun at a target at a shooting range) may or will be deemed criminal in another (such as shooting a gun in the direction of a crowd of people). Such definitional ambiguities are at their least frequent, however, with respect to interpersonal violence, which is broadly proscribed.

It is clear in at least some contexts that different violent anti-social behaviours can arise from different etiologies. Animal studies have shown that distinct networks underlie different types of aggression (e.g., predatory attack and defensive rage. From these studies, one might expect that in humans, distinct neural topographies exist in, for example, the sexual criminal, the sadistic murderer, and the political terrorist.

Evidence does suggest that violent behaviour can be placed into two broad, yet distinct, categories : affective aggression (i.e., impulsive, autonomic arousing, and emotional) and predatory aggression (i.e., premeditated, goal-directed, and emotionless).

With this dichotomy in mind, recent research has appealed to the use of positron emission tomography – PET data to tease apart functional differences between ‘premeditated psychopaths’ and ‘impulsive affective murderers’.

Compared to controls, the impulsive murderers had reduced activation in the bilateral pre-frontal cortex, while activity in the limbic structures was enhanced.

Conversely, the predatory psychopaths had relatively normal prefrontal functioning, but increased right sub-cortical activity, which included the amygdala and hippocampus.

These results suggest that predatory psychopaths are able to regulate their impulses,

….In contrast to impulsive murderers, who lack the prefrontal ‘inhibitory machinery’ that stops them from committing violent transgressions. A

Studies strongly suggest that some kinds of criminal behaviour are associated with dysfunction of different regions of the brain…….And everyone knows this!

MIGHT THE CRIME FIT THE BRAIN?
IMPULSIVE MURDERERS VERSUS PREMEDITATED PSYCHOPATHS

(C-I) Secret intelligence Service

.

ON FAKED IDENTITIES, RESEARCH
(C-I) Secret Intelligence Service

The use of faked identities is a very common issue. People can fake their personal information for a number of reasons. Faked autobiographical information is, for example, observed in sports, with players claiming to be younger than what they really are. Social networks are plagued by faked profiles. Faked personal identity is also a major issue in security. In fact, a large number of terrorists are believed to be hidden among migrants from the Middle East entering Europe. Usually, migrants lack documents and their identity information is often based on self-declaration. Among migrants, it is believed that a high number of terrorists are giving false identities when entering borders. For example, one of the terrorists involved in the Brussels airport suicide bombing on March 22, 2016 was using the identity of a former Inter Milan football player. In these cases, biometric identification tools (e.g., fingerprints) could not be applied as most of the suspects were previously unknown.

Can a faked identity can be spotted in the absence of any information about the suspect’s true identity? <<

Possibly.

Faked identities can theoretically be detected using unexpected questions combined with an analysis of computer mouse movements during the response in ‘binary classification tasks’. It is argued that the analysis of computer mouse dynamics efficiently detects whether the personal information that the person in question claims is true.

The response is not elicited by pressing YES/NO buttons using the keyboard, but instead by clicking with a mouse virtual buttons appearing on the computer screen along with questions regarding their identities. The use of a computer mouse for recording responses has a number of advantages over the use of a keyboard. Computer mouse recording allows several indicators to be collected, including but not limited to response time, velocity, acceleration, and trajectory. The technique is also promising regarding resistance to counter-measures, as a high number of movement parameters seems, in principle, more difficult to control entirely via efficient, planned counter-measures to lie detection.

To the point : There is wide consensus regarding the fact that deception is cognitively more complex than truth-telling and that this higher cognitive complexity is reflected in a number of indices of cognitive effort. >> There is evidence that the process of inhibiting the truthful response, which is automatically activated, and substituting it with a deceptive response may be a complex cognitive task. <<

However, not so easy because in some instances, responding with a lie may be faster than truthfully responding. In fact, distinct types of lies may differ in their cognitive complexity and may require different levels of cognitive effort. For example, the cognitive effort may be minimal when the subject is simply denying a fact that actually happened.

By contrast, it could be very high when fabricating complex lies….and so on….

ON FAKED IDENTITIES. RESEARCH
(C-I) Secret Intelligence Service

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PSYCHOREGULATION – BASICS
Seminar Topic. (C-I) Unit
12 02 2018. Harrogate
Secret Intelligence Service

Psychoregulation methods can solve a wide range of practical tasks of preparation, including:

Raising awareness and clarity of concepts, mastered actions.
Training stability of attention, focusing on the processes of activity
The creation of attitudes on the level of requirements to quality of the activities performed, the level of effort that must be taken on control objects, usually falls outside the scope of attention;

The suppression of negative emotional experiences;
Reduction or suppression of anxiety
Elimination of intrusive thoughts, memories;
Removal of trauma arising from past experience;
Elimination of psychological barriers;
Strengthening the motivation to achieve;
The creation of a neutral attitude to events and events that may have an irritating influence.

Practically almost every one of these problems can be solved by one of these methods. However, some problems can be solved more effectively one and the other – other forms of influence. Some problems can be effectively solved only by the methods of suggestion.

Rational psychotherapy. The impact on the psyche of the methods of persuasion and explanation; rationale of evidence; show that the resulting psychological difficulties are based on misconceptions, mis-perceptions and estimates. To do this, you need to change the attitude to the irritant, and everything will come to normal.

Construction of the conversation should be based on knowledge of the causes of undesired state, and teaching tricks to eliminate their influence.

In an interview you must explain how to learn to suppress interfering with excitement, to prevent its occurrence, to adjust itself to the bold, strong and at the same time, care and attention work.

With the increase in confidence held talks should give the person chance to speak to the fullest. Then you can show her / him the wrong thoughts and delusions, tactfully criticise them. At the same time emphasise its positive qualities and strengths. The arguments must be clear, the language simple and easy to understand. Need to avoid complicated scientific terms.

Suggestion.. One form of mental impact one person to another, characterised by uncritical assimilation latest suggestible ideas, thoughts, feelings, desires and actions, Mainly used in medicine and gives good results in the treatment of functional disorders of the nervous system. Its methods can be successfully applied in cases of over-exertion of the nervous system, the establishment and strengthening of various kinds of attitudes.

Suggestion can be performed while awake and during sleep, dream-like state more precisely – hypnotic sleep.

Suggestion in the waking state. The methodology of the: room in the back of the building, relatively isolated from outside noise. On the floor – track, choke steps physician (psychologist). Lighting subdued, shaded. Involved are located in comfortable chairs or lie down on the couch. Before the start of the session is given five – ten minutes to adapt to the environment. Should get comfortable. Relax muscles, close the eyes. If possible, discard extraneous thoughts, focus on listening medical doctor formulas. Attention is drawn to the fact that as a session dealing with light begins to cover a nice nap. This should not interfere with, resist. Gently but imperative voice of the doctor: “Relax the muscles of the body. Breathe calmly, deeply. In this state of rest and relaxation, will be well taken your words, your suggestion. With each session should be pleased to be here to feel a state of relaxation, complete rest. Better and better you will perceive in your mind all my formulas and suggestions.

*** There is a good deal more, so wait until next week. (C-I)

PSYCHOREGULATION – BASICS
Seminar Topic. (C-I) Unit
12 02 2018. Harrogate
Secret Intelligence Service

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AUTOGENOUS PSYCHOREGULATION TRAIINING

Secret Intelligence Service (C-I) (C-III) (C-V)

Notes from Discussion 16 02 2018
Harrogate

Between the muscular system and the emotional state a direct relationship exists. Negative emotions cause significant muscle tension. With anger, fear, there is considerable excitement – constrained breathing, muffled voice. With positive emotions is observed muscle relaxation, bringing a state of rest of the body. In the state of muscle relaxation increases a person’s ability to manage through self-hypnosis those processes in the body, which in other circumstances can not be strong-willed via regulation.

Modern psychiatry has developed methods of purposeful self-hypnosis, allowing people to bring one’s body into a state of total relaxation, during which it affects one’s vegetative-vascular system and mental condition.

Autogenous training requires regular exercise. Training course takes several months. Education provides preliminary volitional muscle relaxation followed by auto-suggestion, specially developed verbal formulas.

The success of ownership psychoregulation largely depends on the attitude of the ‘student’ to this training, her / his beliefs in high performance techniques and the need for mastering.

All the above methods are reduced to the ability to create and maintain optimal mental state in a variety of changing conditions.

It is important to be able to navigate the opportunities and the appropriateness of existing methodologies of psychoregulation in each case preparation. Sometimes it is difficult, the mind can not be influenced so easily. In such cases, two or three sessions conducted in the waking state, then the mind is better able to apprehend the formula of auto-suggestion.

AUTOGENOUS PSYCHOREGULATION TRAIINING

Secret Intelligence Service (C-I) (C-III) (C-V)

Notes from Discussion 16 02 2018
Harrogate

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GAME THEORY AND ADVANCED PERSISTENT THREATS
Secret Intelligence Service. (C-III)
London
23 02 2018

Advanced persistent threats combine a variety of different attack forms ranging from social engineering to technical exploits. The diversity and stealth of advanced persistent threats turns them into a central problem of contemporary practical system security, since information on attacks, the current system status or the attacker’s incentives is often vague, uncertain and in many cases even unavailable.

Game theory is a natural approach to model the conflict between the attacker and the defender, and this work investigates a generalised class of matrix games as a risk mitigation tool for an advanced persistent threat defence. Standard game theory can be tailored to capture and handle the full uncertainty that is immanent to advanced persistent threats, such as; disagreement among qualitative expert risk assessments, unknown adversarial incentives and uncertainty regarding the current system state (in terms of how deeply an attacker may have penetrated into the system’s protective shells already.

The increasing diversity, connectivity and openness of today’s information systems often lets cyber-attackers find ways into a system on a considerably large lot of different paths. Today, security is commonly support by semi-automated tools and techniques to detect and mitigate vulnerabilities, for example using topological vulnerability analysis, but this progress is paired with the parallel evolution and improvements to the related attacks. Advanced persistent threats naturally respond to the increasing diversity of security precautions by mounting attacks in a stealthy and equally diverse fashion, so as to remain under the radar for as long as is required until the target system has been penetrated, infected and can be attacked as intended. Counter-measures may then come too late to be effective any more, since the damage has already been caused by the time when the attack is detected.

Mitigating advanced persistent threats is in most cases not only a matter of technical precautions, but also some sort of fight against an invisible opponent and external influences on the system (coming from other connected systems but primarily due to the advanced persistent threats remaining hidden). Thus, any security measure taken may or may not be effective on the current system state, depending on how far the advanced persistent threats has evolved already. The question becomes particularly difficult, since the return on security investments is almost impossible to quantify in light of many factors that are outside the security officer’s scope of influence.

Continued on website

GAME THEORY AND ADVANCED PERSISTENT THREATS
Secret Intelligence Service. (C-III)
London

.

ON FAKED IDENTITIES, RESEARCH
(C-I) Secret Intelligence Service

The use of faked identities is a very common issue. People can fake their personal information for a number of reasons. Faked autobiographical information is, for example, observed in sports, with players claiming to be younger than what they really are. Social networks are plagued by faked profiles. Faked personal identity is also a major issue in security. In fact, a large number of terrorists are believed to be hidden among migrants from the Middle East entering Europe. Usually, migrants lack documents and their identity information is often based on self-declaration. Among migrants, it is believed that a high number of terrorists are giving false identities when entering borders. For example, one of the terrorists involved in the Brussels airport suicide bombing on March 22, 2016 was using the identity of a former Inter Milan football player. In these cases, biometric identification tools (e.g., fingerprints) could not be applied as most of the suspects were previously unknown.

Can a faked identity can be spotted in the absence of any information about the suspect’s true identity? <<

Possibly.

Faked identities can theoretically be detected using unexpected questions combined with an analysis of computer mouse movements during the response in ‘binary classification tasks’. It is argued that the analysis of computer mouse dynamics efficiently detects whether the personal information that the person in question claims is true.

The response is not elicited by pressing YES/NO buttons using the keyboard, but instead by clicking with a mouse virtual buttons appearing on the computer screen along with questions regarding their identities. The use of a computer mouse for recording responses has a number of advantages over the use of a keyboard. Computer mouse recording allows several indicators to be collected, including but not limited to response time, velocity, acceleration, and trajectory. The technique is also promising regarding resistance to counter-measures, as a high number of movement parameters seems, in principle, more difficult to control entirely via efficient, planned counter-measures to lie detection.

To the point : There is wide consensus regarding the fact that deception is cognitively more complex than truth-telling and that this higher cognitive complexity is reflected in a number of indices of cognitive effort. >> There is evidence that the process of inhibiting the truthful response, which is automatically activated, and substituting it with a deceptive response may be a complex cognitive task. <<

However, not so easy because in some instances, responding with a lie may be faster than truthfully responding. In fact, distinct types of lies may differ in their cognitive complexity and may require different levels of cognitive effort. For example, the cognitive effort may be minimal when the subject is simply denying a fact that actually happened.

By contrast, it could be very high when fabricating complex lies….and so on….

ON FAKED IDENTITIES. RESEARCH
(C-I) Secret Intelligence Service

.

MIGHT THE CRIME FIT THE BRAIN?
IMPULSIVE MURDERERS VERSUS PREMEDITATED PSYCHOPATHS

What are the wider implications?

(C-I) Secret intelligence Service

While many behaviours can be unambiguously defined, labelling a behaviour as criminal is to define how the behaviour will be considered socially. That is, the very same behaviour that might not be deemed criminal in one social context (say, shooting a gun at a target at a shooting range) may or will be deemed criminal in another (such as shooting a gun in the direction of a crowd of people). Such definitional ambiguities are at their least frequent, however, with respect to interpersonal violence, which is broadly proscribed.

It is clear in at least some contexts that different violent anti-social behaviours can arise from different etiologies. Animal studies have shown that distinct networks underlie different types of aggression (e.g., predatory attack and defensive rage. From these studies, one might expect that in humans, distinct neural topographies exist in, for example, the sexual criminal, the sadistic murderer, and the political terrorist.

Evidence does suggest that violent behaviour can be placed into two broad, yet distinct, categories : affective aggression (i.e., impulsive, autonomic arousing, and emotional) and predatory aggression (i.e., premeditated, goal-directed, and emotionless).

With this dichotomy in mind, recent research has appealed to the use of positron emission tomography – PET data to tease apart functional differences between ‘premeditated psychopaths’ and ‘impulsive affective murderers’.

Compared to controls, the impulsive murderers had reduced activation in the bilateral pre-frontal cortex, while activity in the limbic structures was enhanced.

Conversely, the predatory psychopaths had relatively normal prefrontal functioning, but increased right sub-cortical activity, which included the amygdala and hippocampus.

These results suggest that predatory psychopaths are able to regulate their impulses,

….In contrast to impulsive murderers, who lack the prefrontal ‘inhibitory machinery’ that stops them from committing violent transgressions. A

Studies strongly suggest that some kinds of criminal behaviour are associated with dysfunction of different regions of the brain…….And everyone knows this!

MIGHT THE CRIME FIT THE BRAIN?
IMPULSIVE MURDERERS VERSUS PREMEDITATED PSYCHOPATHS

(C-I) Secret intelligence Service

.

INDIVIDUALS HAVE DIFFERENT VALUE PREFERENCES – NEUROIMAGING

Secret Intelligence Service (C-I)

Inviduals have different value preferences. Neuroimaging studies where value-based decisions in actual conflict situations can be investigated and which suggest an important role of prefrontal and cingulate brain regions.

General preferences, however, reflect a superordinate moral concept independent of actual situations as proposed in much psychological research. Here, the specific brain response would be influenced by abstract value systems and moral concepts. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying such responses are largely unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a forced-choice paradigm on word pairs representing abstract values, one can show that the brain handles such decisions depending on the person’s superordinate moral concept. Persons with a predominant collectivistic (altruistic) value system applied a balancing and weighing strategy – recruiting brain regions of rostral inferior and intraparietal, and midcingulate and frontal cortex.

Conversely, subjects with mainly individualistic (egocentric) value preferences apply a ‘fight-and-flight’ strategy by recruiting the left amygdala.

Finally, if subjects experience a value conflict when rejecting an alternative congruent to their own predominant value preference, comparable brain regions are activated as found in actual moral dilemma situations, i.e., midcingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

Results appear to demonstrate that superordinate moral concepts influence the strategy and the neural mechanisms in decision processes, independent of actual situations, showing that decisions are based on general neural principles.

These findings provide a novel perspective to future sociological  as well as to the analysis of social relations by focusing on abstract value systems as triggers of specific brain responses.

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The experience of embodiment, or bodily self-consciousness—the pre-reflective sensation of being the subject of an experience—comes from the coherent multisensory integration taking place in the brain and relates to the notion of an egocentric first person perspective on the self. One feels embodied due “to the ensemble of sensations that arise in conjunction with being inside, having, and controlling a body”. It is proposed that the sense of embodiment emerges from three central components, namely (i) the sense of agency, i.e. feeling of motor control over the body; (ii) the sense of body ownership, i.e. feeling that a perceived body is one’s own body; and (iii) self-location, i.e. the experienced location of the self. Although we experience our body as a consistent and seemingly immutable representation of our self in space, experimental protocols have shown that the sense of embodiment is much more malleable than commonly assumed. Conflicting multimodal stimulation can temporarily change how one perceives properties of their own body (i.e. an altered bodily self-consciousness). Notably, it can lead to the illusion of owning a fake—either material or virtual—limb, body, and even another individuals’ body.

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Adversitate. Custodi. Per Verum

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Above photograph. Whitehall. London. U.K.

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