.

Secret Intelligence Service

.

(C-1). Room D 31. Seminars

Basic Survival Orienteering Skills, Seminar. Dealing With Survival Trauma Care, Seminar

.

cassiopea constellation      ursa major constellation

.

Notes Minus Practical

Hello. Let us begin by admitting that, depending on whom we are and our role within the intelligence cycle, that it is not inconceivable we might at some point in time be left in the situation where we are completely on our own. Yes, there are degrees of inconceivability that this might be the case, but if we take the extreme position here, then whatever else we include to make the situation easier, then at the very least we have an awareness of the extreme situation.

What is being left on our own? Let’s forget geopolitics for a moment, in fact let’s forget most of the life supports too, be these informational, social and physical. In other words, we have been dumped in the middle of nowhere and without any aid whatsoever for us to find our way. Why this might transpire can and should cause us to consider. Often it forms a part of our training, depending on our intended roles, but not always, so let’s just take one example and I do like examples because they can cut deeply into the comfort zone and all of what is taken for granted. My colleagues would scoff because they know the ways out, but take the example of a computer analyst who has been abducted with the intention of extracting information from him or her regarding certain classified projects. It has transpired that ‘certain information’ has been extracted and the analyst stripped of all means of communication and literally dumped in the middle of nowhere. Of course, this is not the only reason we might find ourselves in such a circumstance and as I said, but certain people, who are used to a very confined and predictably comfortable place in our world, because that is the way their place is designed, might well suffer as a result of all of this being removed, forcibly maybe. Of course I am simplifying because our location could be in a hostile country and so further considerations would apply, such as that of our concealment, nutrition and psychological factors that would prevail. This particular and important consideration is not the remit here and is addressed elsewhere by W-L and I intend to address it too. But this morning it’s really the very basic skills in navigating one’s way that is the remit.

I will present this in two parts, firstly regarding what can you do and secondly how to deal with a colleague who has life threatening injuries too and therefore you will need to deal with these injuries in addition. I know you are thinking about your cell phone, communication device with base, knowledge of the geographical whereabouts, but it’s not as easy as that as I have found out. So here is what to do. I will try and cover as many bases as I can.

I want to include the use of a map, though it is highly unlikely you will have one.

So to begin, ‘orienteering’ is a skill that requires a compass and a map so to aid you in navigating your way from one point to a predetermined destination. The key to successful orienteering involves knowing which direction you are facing. A compass is not a GPS system; it does not require a power source. A compass is invaluable in a survival situation. In the absence of a compass which is where I wanted to begin, there are certain methods by which you can determine your way. Use of the sun is one, and using the stars is another. Lesser known methods are; using the terrain to show you direction, assuming you know the geologic features surrounding you, which is very unlikely. Any of these methods simply tells you which direction is which, and as you were thinking, by itself this knowledge is basically not a lot of use but is required for successful orienteering.

Let’s look at the use of the sun to determine your direction.

The sun rises in the east and it sets in the west, but not precisely so, due east or due west. The sun rises further north on the horizon in the summer time than it does in the winter time. It can also be helpful to know that in the northern hemisphere the sun will be due in line with due south when at its highest point in the sky, or when an object casts no appreciable shadow. In the northern hemisphere, shadows will move clockwise. Shadows will move counter-clockwise in the southern hemisphere. With practice, yes practice, you can use shadows to determine both direction and time of day. Are you all right so far? I know this is a long way from the computer terminal in room **, but do please bear with me.

Let’s look at using your wrist watch to navigate.

You can also determine direction using a wrist watch; I refer to one that has hands. The direction will be accurate if you are using true local time, without any changes for daylight savings time. Remember, the further you are from the equator, the more accurate this method will be. If you only have a digital watch, you can overcome this obstacle, yes you can. Why are you looking that way Mr. *****? Ha Ha Ha. What you can do is quickly draw a watch on a circle of paper with the correct time on it and use it to determine your direction at that time. See, you’re looking at me as if I am saying something you didn’t know.

To continue; while in the northern hemisphere (assuming you know you are in it), you should hold your watch horizontal and point the hour hand at the sun. Bisect the angle between the hour hand and the twelve o’clock mark to get the north-south line. If there is any doubt as to which end of the line is north, remember that the sun rises in the east, sets in the west, and is due south at noon. The sun is in the east before noon and in the west after noon.

If your watch is set on daylight savings time, you can use the midway point between the hour hand and one o’clock to determine the north-south line. In the southern hemisphere, you can point the watch’s twelve o’clock mark toward the sun and a midpoint halfway between twelve and the hour hand will give you the north-south line. Easy yes. We shall have a practice doing all of this later today and I know you are looking forward to it.

Let’s look at using the moon to navigate.

Besides it being a romantic time of day, I think so but let’s forget that aspect for a while and just take as given that the moon orbits the earth. A new moon or no moon is when the moon is on the opposite side of the earth from the sun. Then, as it moves away from the earth’s shadow, it begins to reflect light from its right side and waxes to become a full moon before waning, to appear as a crescent on the left side. You can use this information to identify direction. If you didn’t follow there will be opportunity to clarify everything later, I promise.

If the moon rises before the sun has set, the illuminated side will be the west. If the moon rises after midnight, the illuminated side will be the east. This obvious discovery provides us with a rough east-west reference during the night. The moon is still romantic, no.

Let’s look at using the stars to navigate.

The main constellations for you to learn are; Ursa Major and Cassiopeia. Here on the chart I brought are enlargements for you to look at. Both of these constellations are visible in the northern hemisphere all year round assuming there is a clear sky.

Each of these constellations can be used to locate the North Star. Ursa Major and Cassiopeia are always directly opposite each other and rotate counterclockwise around the North Star. So; mentally draw a line from the outer bottom star to the outer top star of the Ursa Major’s bucket-shape. Extend this line about five times the distance between the pointer stars. You will find the North Star along this line.

Cassiopeia has five stars that form a shape akin to a letter W on its side. The North Star is straight out from Cassiopeia’s center star. Upon your locating the North Star, drop down straight to the horizon and that direction is north.

Stars are actually more accurate than a compass in determining true North. This is because a compass works by magnetism and therefore it can be affected by metal and magnetic inconsistencies in the earth. But of course you don’t need a clear sky to use one so each method has its inherent advantages and disadvantages. Yes, are you all right so far? I think we should take a break.

.

(Coffee Break)

 

Welcome back

Let’s look at crafting a compass; I thought I would throw this in You can construct a makeshift compass by using a piece of ferrous metal. Ferrous, means that a magnet will stick to it and that means it contains iron. I know, I know, you knew that and it’s not likely any will be available, but it’s important to know because in certain situations there could be the items you need. To make a compass you need a small piece of metal as I said and preferably shaped like a needle. You can magnetize the ferrous metal with a magnet or by stroking it with a piece of silk or even repeatedly through your hair, if you have any, har har. The best method is by stroking one end of the ferrous metal with the magnet. You should always rub in the same direction.

Once you have magnetized the ferrous metal, you can suspend it from a piece of string or from a long human hair or just float it on a very small piece of wood in water. The metal will align itself in a north south direction.

When suspended from a piece of nonmetallic string, or floated on a small piece of wood in water, it will align itself with a north-south line. Easy and nothing to it.

Now we are in a survival situation

If you have the luxury of a map you should keep its northern edge pointing north. This sounds trivial but as soon as you put the map away its features start to fade from your memory.

You should remain in contact with the map. I mean you should know where you are on the map. If you lose orientation on the map stop and calculate where you are.

While in the process of reacquiring your location on the map do not vacate without thoroughly establishing your location as best as possible.

If you have to shift your straight line course to follow a feature such as an overhead power line, do so. Then you can concentrate on just making tracks which will be a very efficient straight line that does not meander to any great extent.

If you are lost altogether do not become fretful, note the last known location, use features such as rivers and roads that you know you encountered, either crossed over or didn’t so to eliminate vast areas of the map. It is usually the case that while disoriented your map to you will not appear to match your surroundings. I think we should go over this again and tease out certain issues for discussion; I refer to issues regarding different hypothetical circumstances. Let’s take another break first.

.

(Break)

.

 

.

Seminar (II) Dealing With Survival Trauma Care. C-1

.

.

Secret Intelligence Service

Adversitate. Custodi. Per Verum

.

.

 

(C-I) 19 01 2016

.

Return to Homepage

.

The Union Jack

.

.

.