Secret Intelligence Service


Mental and Physical VI

Special Operations in Counter-Terror



Welcome back to the Unit

This is to continue the Mental and Physical Section – Operational Field Skills


Remember, that if you strive for something with all your heart, you will be able to achieve what you want, even if it seems impossible, even if all the surrounding people openly tell you that it is impossible



Attention : A note before we begin :

The cause of deterioration of health and a decrease in the sports results may be violations in diet. It is known that excessive weight hampers physical activity and thereby leads to disruption of biological processes in the muscle and bone tissues and their weakening.

Since these tissues have to withstand significant loads under the influence of their own body weight, as well as additional loads during training and competitive activities, the risk of their trauma increases immeasurably. In addition, overweight, along with stressful situations and a high degree of emotional tension, characteristic of sport in general and small arms in particular, contributes to the emergence and development of cardiovascular diseases. The main cause of obesity, in addition to lack of motor activity, is inadequate nutrition.

To the athlete’s diet special hygienic requirements are made : the need to observe the order of meals during the day, the suitability of specialization, climatic conditions and, to some extent, household habits. Miscalculations in this regard are unacceptable, since they can largely negate the great preparatory work.

Certain hygiene requirements are imposed on the food itself. First of all, it should be benign, have appropriate temperature, it is easy and well assimilated, have a small volume and at the same time provide a feeling of satiety, taste, smell and appearance and cause appetite.

Food should be diverse, consisting of various products of animal and vegetable origin, contain a sufficient amount of fiber, food substances necessary for the construction of tissues and organs and the normal course of physiological processes: proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and water. Food should be consumed in an amount sufficient to compensate for the energy expenditure of the body.

For sportsmen and women-shooters the following norms of daily ration are recommended:

proteins -2,1 … 2,3 g

fats – 2,1 … 2,3 g

carbohydrates – 8.5 … 9.0 g

Caloric content of the diet is 60 … 62 kcal. These data are based on 1 kg of weight. In order to determine the daily calorie content of the diet and the composition of the ration of a particular athlete, these figures must be multiplied by the weight of the athlete’s body. Caloric content of the food ration can be calculated approximately by menu-layouts, i.e., a list of dishes in the daily menu with the indication of the number of foods taken for cooking each dish. Counting is done with the help of special tables of caloric content and chemical composition of food products.

To calculate the content of nutrients and calories from this table, the weight of the product specified in the menu-layout must be multiplied by the percentage of a particular food substance and divided the result by 100. By counting the number of proteins, fats and carbohydrates, as well as calories in each individual product, taken for preparing a certain dish, and then adding the data obtained for each meal and for each meal, you can find out the caloric value of breakfast, lunch, dinner and the whole daily diet as a whole.

This method of determining the calorie intake is widely used in the practice of daily monitoring. It allows you to check the correctness of the compilation of food layouts from the standpoint of established norms, and also gives a certain idea of ​​the daily calorie intake and distribution during the day.

To clarify the caloric content of daily nutrition, depending on the daily routine, the nature of the training and the amount of training loads can be done with the help of the athlete’s timing. In this case, it is recommended to start from the calculated data proposed in the table. Making the timing of the day, you need to group different activities (sleep, toilet, household chores, professional service work, training, etc.) and calculate the time spent on each of these activities.

When determining the expenditure of time for a sport load, only the time directly spent on the exercise should be considered. The trainer’s explanations, rest, forced breaks should be classified as “walking”, “sitting”, “theoretical studies”, etc. In the event that it is difficult to find a table heading for the load or sports activity, you can take a character close to it.

After compiling the timing, the value indicated in the table should be multiplied by the duration of this action, then the results are summed and the result multiplied by the weight of the athlete’s body. The result of the calculations made is that the energy expenditure in calories should be increased by 10 percent in order to eliminate the error due to possible inaccuracies in the timing of certain activities. All this will amount to the value of daily caloric intake.

It is necessary to know that each gram of proteins and carbohydrates gives the body 4.1 kcal, and a gram of fat – 9.3 kcal. When organizing meals, one should always remember one simple truth: in whatever form excessive amounts of calories enter the body – in the form of fats, proteins or carbohydrates – they invariably turn into adipose tissue.

Interesting in this connection are the practical conclusions of two Swedish doctors and researchers – L. Peterson and P. Renström (1981) : 1 kg of adipose tissue contains 6000 calories. The excess of 50 calories per day in a year will amount to 18,000 calories, which corresponds to 3 kg of additional “live” weight. And what is 50 calories? It’s four pieces of sugar or a small piece of chocolate. In order to neutralize these 50 calories, you have to run or walk a quick step a distance of one kilometer. Here’s how you can spend 100 calories:

running – 8 … 10 minutes

running at high speed – 8 minutes

cycling or pedaling on the bike – 11 min

swimming, skating – 12 min

the game of badminton – 12 … 15 min

performance of gymnastic exercises – 15 min

a game of football, hockey

hockey with ball – 15 min

game of tennis

walk walking at a fast pace: – 15 … 18 min

work in the garden – 20 … 25 min

walk at a slow pace – 25 … 30 min

The data given are calculated for a person with an average degree of physical development.


Modesty is the foundation of the strong, and pride is the support of the weak



Remember : Every person has a price that it is determined by his/her actions, words, way of life. Some people eventually become simply priceless in our lives – especially those forged through shared, super-human endeavour.

And yet, there are those who stand pennies and their deeds are mean and their words are air. It is a pity that they are sincere. But they must also be among us, in order that we understand the price of those who are the REAL people.




Secret Intelligence Service

Audibility at night is much better in wet weather, after rain, in mountains, near water and when the wind blows from the side of the enemy.

In windless weather in the forest, the person’s footsteps can be heard at a distance of up to 40 m, individual people’s speech – up to 80 m, several people – up to 120 m, whispers – up to 20 m, knocking metal parts of equipment, loading weapons – up to 300 m, rustling clothes – up to 40-50m. Cigarette smoke in the forest can be felt for 300-350 meters. The specific smell of unwashed body is 100-120 meters. Garlic spirit is 70 meters.

Noise standard of small group movement : at a distance of 50 m there should be no sound of equipment knocking, for 20 m – rustling of cloth against fabric. At a distance of 40 m there should be no sound of marching movements, unbound shoe. Steps in shoes equipped with soft soles or knotted should not be heard at a distance of 10 m.



Secret Intelligence Service. (C-IV)

What should you primarily pay attention to when organizing defence in populated areas? Your positions should have a good firing zone and be on the most probable routes of movement of the enemy’s combat forces. Positions should be well strengthened. When choosing a position, remember that most modern buildings have thin walls, fixed either on a steel frame, or on concrete reinforcement structures, and large windows.

Ideal are buildings built of brick, stone and reinforced structures. The building chosen for positions should have more than one floor and basements: the upper floors can be protected from artillery and mortar fire, while the basement can become a health center, a storehouse of ammunition, weapons, equipment, food and water.

Before the start of any fighting, buildings must be prepared for defence. Preparation includes the removal of window and other glasses (with the explosion turning into many deadly fragments), stretching in the windows of the grid in order to avoid throwing grenades. In residential buildings it is recommended to leave curtains on the windows, since they screen the movement inside the room. Alternatively, you can use burlap, nailing it to the window frames.

Ceilings and walls of buildings should be strengthened with the help of wooden beams. Sandbags are usually used when locking the front door, as well as to strengthen the walls and floor in order to protect against small arms and small debris. Bags can be used to build bunkers inside buildings. These bunkers are usually used for machine-gunning and sniper calculations and are built at a distance of 1.5 meters from the window to hide smoke and flames when shooting. Other shooting embrasures can be organised in roofs, in attics (separate bricks are knocked out of the wall) and directly on the roof using natural relief and sandbags

There is a practice of placing anti-tank calculations on the roof with the aim of hitting armoured vehicles from the side of the most poorly protected – from above.

Shooting and anti-tank calculations must be placed on positions giving the maximum possibility of firing in the vertical and horizontal planes. For the purpose of disinformation of the enemy, it is possible to display false embrasures with the help of black paint on the walls, as well as creating illusions of well-fortified positions in empty buildings. The windowsills are closed by a board with nails. The stairs collapse or overlap with barbed wire, or the The doors are covered with nails, just like the sill. Moves between floors inside the house are made by means of a ladder through the passageways made in the floor and ceiling. During the battle in the building, on different floors, the staircase between the rooms can be simply cleaned.

Barbed wire can be used as an addition to existing natural obstacles (hedges, fences, walls), as well as to prevent attacks from the roof. Gutters, and various fasteners that can be used by the attacker to penetrate the building, must be removed. In ****, insurgents often left bare-bare wires dangling from the roof under tension in places of possible attack. Before the fighting begins, all the available containers, including bathtubs and wash basins, should be filled with water, since water may be needed not only to quench thirst, but also to extinguish possible fires.

Mines, both anti-tank and anti-personnel, can be used to organise ‘passing funnels’ into the combat zone with the aim of directing enemy combat equipment and personnel along a certain route, as well as direct approaches to defensive targets in order to reduce the rate of attack.

Positions must be kept to the limit of possibilities, but only a fanatic is ready to die protecting them. The entrances and exits, including the openings in the walls of adjacent buildings, can be used for rapid movement with the aim of both improving fire efficiency and retiring if the enemy’s fire becomes too strong. qIn any case, the most appropriate tactic is not to remain passive. Mobile combat patrols are used to conduct combat operations outside the fortifications, as well as for reconnaissance purposes to detect enemy personnel and combat equipment. The task of these mobile groups includes actions that will not allow the enemy to draw up a detailed plan for defensive structures, as well as actions aimed at destroying the personnel and equipment of the enemy and demoralizing the attackers even before they enter into hostilities with the main forces.

It should be noted that air support in the settlements is not so effective (as confirmed during air strikes in Bosnia). The most logical option of using air support is the destruction of military equipment and personnel on the approaches to the defended facility and the destruction of columns of equipment, as well as convoys with ammunition and ammunition. Once ground formations are involved in hostilities, it becomes difficult even to use combat helicopters without causing damage to their units.


“Thank you to those who became my family, not by blood, but by life.”

“So then, we have the opportunity to lead an unusual life, so we have no right to refuse it.”



Secret Intelligence Service. (C-IV)


The equipment used by the military personnel of intelligence units is important for the following reasons. First, some items of equipment are expensive and, if lost, can not always be replenished. Secondly, the very existence of a soldier and the effectiveness of his actions depend to a large extent on the equipment. Hence the need for proper packing and care of the items of equipment. Individual and group weapons Proper preparation and saving of weapons, no doubt, is the most important stage in the preparation of an operative /  soldier for combat operations. The following rules must be observed:

The belt must be secured and the metal parts wrapped around the tape.

Correctly select the length of the slings for clamping the weapon when making a parachute jump.

The sight should be set to the minimum distance.

The possession for cleaning weapons.

Must be packed in a waterproof container. The accessory kit should include :


Flanelet (5x10cm).

Thinner / grease.

A brush.

A piece of cloth.

Unloading waistcoat :

The property carried in the unloading waistcoat should be placed in such a way as to ensure maximum comfort and its preservation. Incorrect placement leads to abrasions and, in certain situations, to breakage of items of equipment.

Handling with a discharge vest:

Avoid rough handling.

Avoid unnecessary improvised improvements.

Regularly check and, if necessary, repair the vest.

It is advisable to supplement the vest with attachment points for items of equipment, for example, straps with buttons.

It is necessary to camouflage the vest regularly.

Preparing the contents of the vest:

All property to be stacked in a vest must be grouped, for example, a survival kit, including a mirror for signaling, a stroboscopic flashlight, etc.

All items should be attached using strong dark cords. Chords should be of sufficient length, providing convenient use of such items as, for example, a compass, a gun, etc.

Stores should be stacked as follows:

Feeder down

Bullets – right

It is advisable to attach a tape to the bottom of the magazine for quick removal from the pocket.

Fragile items must be wrapped in protective material.

All items must be camouflaged.

All items should be checked regularly for serviceability, cleaning and, if necessary, repaired.

Objects should not make noise when driving.

Ensure that all contents are protected from water ingress.

Objects often used should be at hand, for example, a compass.

The contents of the vest. The contents of the vest should include at least :


Mirror for signals.

Pen knife.


A pistol with two magazines.

Shooting device for shooting signal rockets.

Stroboscopic flashlight with infrared filter.



Small flashlight.

Emergency food ration.

Survival Kit, including :

Spare compass.

Windproof matches or a lighter.


Pocket knife or knife for freshness.

Sewing kit.

Fishing line and set of hooks.

Flask with water (2 liters).

First aid kit, including :



Tablets for water disinfection.

Lip cream.


Tablets from a stomach disorder.

 Insect repellent.

Ammunition used in the first place (stores, tapes, grenades, etc.).

Wipe, brush and grease


Despite the fact that this piece of equipment is least loved by soldiers, it allows you to carry weights in the most convenient way and provides relative comfort in the field. When using a backpack, the following rules must be observed:

Backpack :

Must be fully camouflaged.

A spare set of shoulder straps must be placed between the frame and the support straps.

Spare rings and studs for attaching shoulder straps can be replaced with parachute slings or bolts and nuts.

Regularly check the wear of the frame, shoulder belts and backpack straps.

Loose tapes should be tied up or hidden.

Avoid unnecessary improvements.

The contents of the backpack should not make a noise.

Lay the property in such a way that items that are used frequently (sleeping bag, etc.) can be taken or used (radio station) without pulling out other items.

Property that can be damaged by rain should be packed in watertight containers.

Water :

Jars should have cases of dark or camouflaged fabric that act as a heat insulator and reduce noise.

Flask covers must have rubber seals for tight closing.

The lids must be tied to the flasks to prevent them from being lost in the event of danger.

Empty polyethylene bags can be filled with water and used to store it in a game or for a long time at the observation post.

Tanks with water should be evenly distributed at the sides and at the top of the backpack to accommodate the gravity as high as possible.

The amount of water depends on the situation, terrain, weather conditions and availability of natural water sources. On average, it is necessary to take 2 litres of water per day at an average pace of the march.

Dietary supply :

All products intended for consumption within one day must be packed in a separate package.

Products should be packed in waterproof containers and packed in a patrol backpack.

Use a plastic or wooden spoon to reduce noise.

Containers for products should be camouflaged and not have identification labels.

It is necessary to have small bags for food waste, so as not to leave traces of stay.

Food rations should be placed at the bottom of the backpack.

The number of food products depends on the duration of the actions and the individual characteristics of the soldier. The number of products per day is approximately 1 can of canned meat (or vegetarian), 20 grams of rice and 2 chocolate bars.

General provisions :

A medical first aid kit should be placed in the upper left pocket of the backpack. On the pocket valve, you must put a black cross to indicate its contents.

When using gas tiles, it should be packed together with food in a patrol backpack, and not be transported in the central compartment of the backpack interspersed with other items. It is recommended to pack the tile in a bag to reduce noise.

The radio must be packed in a separate emergency bag, which can easily be removed in case of danger.

A piece of camouflage net (2 x 2 m), folded into a roll, must be attached to the bottom of the backpack to disguise the soldier and property at stops. The colour of the network is determined by the type of terrain, vegetation and season.

Property transferred to itself :

• Map. • Notepad, pencil and elastic. • Coordinate. • Communication program.

Conclusion :

Usually, soldiers try to take too much extra stuff with them, which leads to a reduction in speed and a lot of strain on the back. It is necessary to take with you only the necessary things.

It is the duty of every operative to constantly maintain the property in good order and clean condition. Failure in property or delay in shooting can not only jeopardise the fulfillment of the task, but also cost lives, your own and others.




Secret Intelligence Service. (C-IV)

Operative Field Skills

The technique of overcoming obstacles in the city has its own peculiarities. So, the wall is overcome only after preliminary examination of its opposite side by a rapid throw. Before overcoming open areas of the terrain (intersection of roads, streets, gaps between houses), it is necessary to make sure that there is no enemy.

It is advisable to inspect the terrain due to shelter (for example, from the corner of the building, while the most common mistake is to unmask oneself with the elements of equipment, (the barrel of the weapon, the antenna of the radio station, the surveillance equipment, etc.) under the windows of buildings, with maximum rapidity. The openings of the windows of the basement premises should be jumped (step over). It should be avoided as far as possible the use of doorways for entry and exit. If necessary, leave the building with a rapid roll, low bending over to the pre-planned cover under the cover of the comrade’s fire. In the village, can move both along and through the buildings, using breaks in the walls, and the last mode of movement should be preferred. Smokes and fire cover are used, natural shelters, personnel and improvised means of camouflage are used, moving quickly from cover to cover according to a pre-planned route, and the distance between the shelters should not be significant. Moving within the group it is advisable to maintain a distance between scouts of 5 – 6 m (8 -12 steps) to reduce the risk of fire damage. In the building, one should avoid moving along window and doorways, in the corridors, move only along the walls.

During the storming of the building, it is necessary to break into it after the rupture of the grenade thrown inwards, but it should be remembered that the enemy can throw this grenade back in time. At the time of the throw, the command should be given to warn comrades. In the event that the grenade is thrown by the enemy, the requisite command is given.

The surviving enemy is destroyed by who broke in after the grenade exploded. Then the room is thoroughly inspected. One of the first in at this time provides a fire cover for the group, occupying a position at the doorway outside the room. During such actions, using pre-set commands and signals that indicate their location and procedure. After completing the inspection, the senior team gives the command, thus informing the outside cover about the exit of the group from the room. The room is marked with a marked sign. During the movement on the stairs, the command “Up” or “Get down” is given. But still it is much safer and safer to penetrate into buildings and premises through the breaks made in the walls with the help of explosives or any improvised means. The order of penetration remains unchanged.

The most expedient direction of cleaning up buildings is the direction from the top down, because in which case the enemy will be forced out of the building and destroyed. In the case of bottom-up, the enemy can strengthen on the upper floors or go on the roofs of buildings.

During the assault for penetration into buildings, various means can be used :

portable staircases, rainwater and drainage pipes, roofs and windows of adjacent buildings, trees and even helicopters growing nearby. The success of the actions of the assault group will largely depend on the correctly organised fire destruction of the enemy. The correct choice of the firing position is of great importance. Typical positions can be equipped around corners of buildings, in window and door apertures, breaks, attics and roofs. When conducting fire from behind the wall, must take the position to the right-from the left of it, but not from above. When conducting fire from door and window openings, as well as breaks in the walls, it is advisable to occupy the firing position in the depth of the room, which reduces the probability of detection by the enemy, the fire to lead from shelter from the knee or lying down.

Underground communications :

During the conduct of exploration in the city, underground communications are widely used. Movement on them, as a rule, requires preliminary preparation and is carried out for small (up to 200 – 3,000) distances along a previously explored route. For movement, it is advisable to use a conductor or a communication plan. Radio communication, as a rule, is not applied due to its low efficiency due to significant interference. Wire communication is used to communicate with the senior manager. On the plan (scheme) of underground communications, the commander of the group makes a route with the indication of azimuths, magnetic deflection, the exact location of the hatches and the distances between them. In addition, each must have a gas mask, an electric torch, a candle and matches, a piece of chalk and a strong rope up to 10 m in length, a military chemical reconnaissance device (WWII) and a rope up to 40m. In preparation for actions in underground communications, special devices for footwear are made for greater stability and prevention of slipping; a fine-mesh metal mesh is fixed to the soles or they are wound with a wire. The greatest danger is the gases and evaporation accumulated in communications, the concentration of which often exceeds considerably the maximum permissible standards. Therefore, before descending to the ground, having opened the hatch, it is absolutely necessary to wait a certain time for the accumulated gases to get a little weathered. For insurance and emergency assistance is tied for a belt with a rope, by means of which it is immediately pulled out to the surface in case of poisoning. The main signs of poisoning are; nausea, vomiting and dizziness. If these signs appear already in the course of the task, the group must immediately exit to the surface through the nearest hatch. As a rule, the first, moves at a distance of up to 10 meters from the group, illuminating the path with the help of a bat lamp or an electric flashlight. Avoid open flames, as accumulated gases can detonate. A candle, with known precautionary measures, can be used as an indicator for determining the direction of the exit to the surface according to the deflection of its flame. The commander, as a rule, is at the head of the group. Closing during the movement of chalk marks on the walls of conditional marks, marking the route, which in case of loss of orientation gives the group the opportunity to return to the starting point. The commander of the group determines the route, during the movement follows the azimuth and personally controls the distance traveled, counting the turns. In addition, for security, he/she appoints one to count a couple of steps. When approaching the next well, on the command of the senior opens the hatch cover, inspects the area and determines its location. The results of the inspection are reported to the commander of the group. Tunnels underground communications, the enemy can mine, they can create areas of debris and destruction. It should be remembered that in the enclosed dungeon space any sounds are extremely amplified and even the footsteps are heard for a considerable distance, and the sounds of shots and ruptures of grenades can damage the eardrums, which leads to deafness. Anticipating contact with the enemy, must take care of the ears in advance, inserting gags in them. The actions in urban underground communications can be compared with the performance of reconnaissance missions at night. The darkness and limited space of the dungeon causes many a natural sense of fear, there is uncertainty in their abilities and suspicion. To perform such tasks, personnel with a stable mentality are selected.


Secret Intelligence Service. (C-IV)

Operative Field Skills



Secret Intelligence Service. (C-IV)

Operative Field Skills

Using optical means of observation, begin the reconnaissance of the settlement from a distance, from a distance that allows to determine by characteristic characteristics whether there is an enemy in it. The presence of enemy troops in the village can be detected by the increased barking of dogs, the smoke of camp kitchens, furnace furnaces at unusual times, the absence of people in the fields and orchards, especially during field work. Traces of tanks, combat vehicles at the entrance (exit), the sounds of the engines produce the presence of mechanised units and sub units. The presence of antenna devices (radio and microwave stations) in the outskirts or near a populated area, the sixth cable communication line or the traces of dug scant cables, the helicopter landing site indicates the location of the command post. Determine the firing point installed in the foundation of the house, you can by the cleared sector for shooting (for lack of part of the fence or for cut trees, etc.), the difference in colour from the general background, the reinforcement of walls with additional masonry or sandbags. In the winter, the embrasure can be seen by the pair emerging from it. In wooden houses, the firing points can be found by freshly filing logs with the device embrasures, strengthening the walls, their coating with compounds that make it difficult to ignite. Embrasures are usually located closer to the corners of buildings. In buildings prepared for defence or occupied by enemy observers, there are usually no signs of life and it seems that there is no one there, but this emptiness should alert. When inspecting the inhabited, one should pay attention to bushes, trees, individual structures, deep ditches, ravines on the outskirts, where the enemy may have security units, as well as roofs, attics, windows of tall buildings, factory pipes, from where can observe. After the inspection, from a distance, covering with trees, bushes, canals from vegetable gardens, orchards, vineyards, outbuildings and the back of residential buildings, penetrate the settlement and inspect the buildings on the outskirts, if there are residents in them, then interview them. In the village of the rural type, advance through the gardens, gardens, and courtyards. Do not move close to the buildings and the areas seen from windows and doors.

It is advisable to conduct reconnaissance of an urban-type settlement with two pairs.. Moving with a small interval in pairs on the same level on different sides of the street, they are watching, covering each other. When inspecting buildings from the inside, the senior watch person (he/she) remains outside, being ready to assist the watch person and maintaining eye contact with the commander. Sentinels, inspecting the building from the inside, the entrance door must be left open. Entering the dwelling house, first of all one needs to interview the owner and do not let him/her go until the examination is completed. Particular attention should be paid to attics and cellars. In an empty room, on the street and in the courtyard, touching any objects or objects is not recommended, since they can be mined. In such cases it is necessary to use a long pole or a rope from behind the shelter. The door is opened with a kick of the foot, and if it opens outwards, then using the rope or again. It is safer to penetrate a building (premise) to use breaks in the walls. If the situation permits, explosive charges, hand grenades, a shot from a grenade launcher or a gun of a combat vehicle can be used. Doors and windows in buildings are often mined by the enemy, in addition, they can be under enemy surveillance. Therefore, you must enter the room carefully in readiness to open fire or, after punching a door with a machine gun in the area of ​​the castle, open it with a kick of the foot, throw a grenade inside and burst inside immediately after the break. When booby traps are detected, they are immediately reported by command, and the locations of their detection are indicated. The actions of the sentinels visiting the settlement should be observed by the commander.

In large settlements the core of the patrol is advancing after it is examined from quarter to quarter. Detected mined buildings and barriers are indicated by signs or inscriptions on the walls. Inscriptions made by the enemy, conventional signs, road signs are drawn and, together with the documents found (captured), are sent to the senior commander. When leaving the settlement, further movement is organised so that the locals can not determine the true direction. When conducting reconnaissance in a settlement, reconnaissance units can perform reconnaissance and combat missions, in particular, act as assault groups. To ensure the successful fulfillment of these tasks, it is of great importance that the personnel be trained in the technology of the secretive movement in urban conditions.


Secret Intelligence Service. (C-IV)

Operative Field Skills


Note :

SWARM ATTACKS Swarm attacks, are high-risk, coordinated assaults, often directed against multiple targets or building complexes, using mobile groups to circumvent security measures, allowing attackers to inflict casualties, garner news coverage and, in recent years, to inflict considerable damage prior to the neutralisation of the assailants.

In some cases particular methods have been melded, with one set of gunmen undertaking shooting sprees and hostage-taking, while another group of gunmen become involved in simultaneous barricade siege incidents. Even though the label ‘swarm attack’ has appeared relatively recently, the term has been adopted and applied more widely to describe these types of attacks….




Secret Intelligence Service. (C-IV)

Operative Field Skills

If there is time and opportunity, it is advisable to make a preliminary reconnaissance of the route beforehand. At the same time, it is possible to study the paths and approaches to the original object carefully, with careful observation of these approaches from different points, because in the presence of closed areas and invisibility zones, when observing from one observation post, it is impossible to identify unexpected obstacles on the reconnaissance route. In the mountainous woodland, the sharp intersection and closeness of the landscape, the hidden approaches to the desired object, at first glance, more than enough. However, when carefully studying them, it is established which of them are blocked and impassable, what mines are set, and in what directions it is tactically advantageous for the enemy to expose the secret posts.

The enemy can be based both in small settlements. So also in natural masks that save from electronic surveillance devices – in ravines, gorges, hollows, over precipices and back slopes of heights, behind embankments, dams and other irregularities in the relief. In the forest, the enemy should be found not far from water sources.

Exploration of settlements in the mountains is conducted from nearby tactical heights. Before this, it is necessary to carefully explore these heights themselves, so as not to run into the defensive lines of the enemy – for the defense of the settlement the enemy will seek to equip firing points on the surrounding heights of the altitude.

When approaching settlements on the enemy side, the windward side and open spaces should be avoided. Otherwise you will feel the dogs – they know their own, and on the others they will raise a hubbub.

Pay special attention to the abnormal silence and the lack of traffic in the settlements, where this movement has always been. Hidden and patiently watching this phenomenon for a while, you can find interesting things – haze from cigarettes, steam from the mouth, various kinds of stirring, smells and sounds, familiar and unfamiliar.

You cannot go into abandoned houses – as a rule, they are mined. You cannot eat food left by the enemy food – it always (always) will be poisoned. Food in war is a particularly valuable thing, and it’s just that they do not leave it.

The task of the special group at all times is the search for caches. At the same time, it is possible to establish the production of earthworks for the arrangement of caches by scattered fresh or dried ground, sliced ​​strata of turf and places on the grass carpet, where these layers are cut. The production of such works produces traces of horse carts or pack animals, on which the excavated land was exported and building materials were brought in. In the wooded area, caches are very often arranged under large stumps or charred trees. They are very firmly on the large roots, which form a roof-overlap. The ventilation takes place through a hollow in a charred tree. Through the same hollow, a periscope is advanced to observe the terrain.

The duties of the special group also include a very unpleasant, but necessary work – the excavation of graves. Exhumed corpses are described, photographed, carefully searched, documents, letters, notes, photographs, etc. are taken from them. – very often they contain invaluable information.

Approaches to the enemy base are carefully controlled by disguised secret posts. Therefore, one should not hurry up here. Examine the terrain and local objects carefully, without giving out or unmasking yourself. Local objects – bushes, stones, stumps must be counted and remember how many of them there were and how many are available now, and how all this is located. Before approaching a local object, carefully examine it from afar. Try to find any signs that indicate the presence of the enemy. The local subject is, if possible, pre-inspected (observed) from two or more points. Approach to it should not be all at once, and having a disguised group of fire cover for securing. When inspecting local items, you should carefully observe the sides. Investigating in this way the terrain and carefully moving to the object of a specific search, it is necessary to engage increased observation and trained animal instinct. Remember; in the world of tactical reconnaissance, most of the reconnaissance groups are ‘pierced’ not near the sought-after object, but at distant approaches to this object.

When observing enemy bases in the mountains and in the forest, lie motionless and do not move – observers of secret posts also conduct active and close observation. At the same time, one should be afraid of the counter-activity of snipers and capture groups.

A camouflaged observation post, arranged on a tall tree, impudently arranged in close proximity to the guerrilla base or along guerrilla movement routes, is very beneficial, and, as it may seem strange, is barely noticeable. Because near the base behind a line of secret posts the opponent is calmed and looks more under legs, than upwards. Dogs of guard breeds are usually sniffed to the ground. And only the dogs of hunting breeds sniff the atmosphere.

When viewed from above, well-identified :

movement on approaches to the base, roads, paths, lines of communication, classes with the composition of the enemy, the timing of events occurring at the enemy base. For all these signs, the enemy’s quantitative and qualitative condition is being explored, the availability and location of its reserves, links with other bases and detachments. If possible, a personal enemy composition is established – by name. The true level of combat training and discipline is established (for example, if loafers and idle people are not noticed on the base, it can tell a lot). Such tracking down of bases by deep hidden raids from high points (from trees or high rocks always gave colossal results). With the development of surveillance devices, one cannot especially be heroic, but simply install special video cameras at such points.

In any case, for such impudent actions, careful preliminary observation of the object of search is required, which is carried out from 2-3 points for several hours to several days.

In addition to all of the above, the special group is obliged to outline the lines for a possible attack of its main forces, the way forward for these lines and the approximate plan for the attack of the object.

Intelligence requires constant hard work of the brain and the adoption of independent non-standard solutions in non-recurring circumstances. Everyone must think. The information must be reliable, and therefore the received data are carefully checked and rechecked.

In the course of events, all decisions are taken by the reconnaissance group, based on real introductory notes. If necessary, take a prisoner, this issue is resolved either by reconnaissance on a specific object of search, or by setting an ambush. Enemy in the mountains – it is better. This allows you to conduct an attack of the enemy more quickly, more efficiently and at lower physical costs. Such a raid is conducted from the rear and from a hard-to-reach direction, where it is easier to achieve secrecy and surprise, and where the enemy does not expect an attack. It should be borne in mind that the enemy’s running of an unnecessary unsystematic panic fire (especially in the case of smoke) is an advantageous moment for rapprochement with the object of search and capture. If possible, it is better to avoid a big war – it is always possible to drag a fighter who has retired into bushes ‘by need’, who throws garbage away from the base, or who has retired, or on the sly from the leadership who arranged a booze with the same, somewhere behind the perimeter of the base. There are other options.

When setting up an ambush on a mountain path, somewhere on top of the path in a safe place, arrange a shelter from the rocks, preferably circular, and disguise it under the background of the terrain with sprinkling of small stones. This shelter settles in a place with a good view and is used for reconnaissance by day. During the daytime, the reconnaissance group uses shelter for rest and observation, for the night descends to the trail to capture and hold the captive. In the ambush and on the day there should be no stirring, waste to the side for water and for need.

Calm in the mountains is deceptive. In the mountains, observation is not just about you. Water, brought with you, drink only by permission of the commander of the group. The water supply is limited.

Miracles do not happen. High headquarters sooner or later have to come to terms with the idea – maneuver by ordinary pedestrian reconnaissance groups in a severely broken mountainous terrain is difficult, and in some directions it is impossible at all. In such cases, all the hope – to specialized units of mountain rangers, alpine shooters, and mountain rifle divisions, – in different countries they are called in different ways. The soldiers of these units have good mountaineering skills (it just cannot be different), They are equipped with all necessary climbing equipment (full equipment, not one ice axe for eight people, as usual) and trained to survive in the mountains. If possible, they are brought closer to the task site by helicopters, and then they maneuver independently. Using the above mentioned opportunities, such small units always (always) carry out successfully necessary actions in the guerrilla rear and are inaccessible. Their caches are also inaccessible to guerrillas – they simply cannot be reached. The activities of specialized skills mountain-troop units are piece work that only professionals can perform.

Combat work in the mountains is not a tourist walk. The weather in the mountains changes frequently, quickly and little predictably. This is also an extensive and separate topic. You need to know at least diurnal changes for a particular section of the terrain and be prepared for these changes.

After the task is completed, the reconnaissance group returns to its own. If possible, it is taken by helicopter. If not, you have to choose yourself, and preferably another way. The path of return must be thought out even before being nominated for assignment. The reconnaissance groups, returning back the same way they were nominated, very often disappeared without a trace.

In the presence of a dense front edge for the reconnaissance group to return to its main forces, it is temporarily, but decisively, pushed into the enemy’s defenses and then retreats back along with the seized reconnaissance group. There are other options. According to the established practice, vehicles moving on the road (front line) are checked at every possible post very carefully. But the commander’s transport, which was in the immediate vicinity of the front line behind the line of check posts, is often not checked at all – it is believed that this transport is familiar and its own.

With an impudent breakthrough, the enemy is lost and does not open fire on such a machine, assuming that there is an immediate ‘partisan’ command in it. Honouring is common in all armies and armed formations. This tactical feature at all times and in all wars was used by reconnaissance groups and ours, and not ours, to slip into our own. This is especially good in places where there is no continuous trench line.


Secret Intelligence Service. (C-IV)

Operative Field Skills



Secret Intelligence Service. (C-IV)

Operative Field Skills

The defensive reaction of a person with a pistol includes not only pulling it out of its holster, aiming and shooting, but also visual detection of the target and assessment of the degree of threat. Because visual detection and threat assessment precede shooting, they affect the reaction rate of the shooter.

The detection of the target depends on the alertness and perception of the actions of the potential adversary. The threat assessment depends on what is in the hands of a potential adversary. We must ‘grasp with an eye’ what he/she holds in his/her hands and what he/she does.

Consider an exercise to assess the goal. In this exercise we use standard figured targets for international pistol shooting competitions, which are painted with images of objects of four different shapes. The form of objects must have significant differences, so that you can recognise this object at a glance (square, circle, triangle, rhombus, etc.). To paint items you can use coloured paints in aerosol cans. Neutral colors, for example, olive, black, gray and brown are considered the most suitable. These colours do not stand out sharply against the background of the target, and the arrow can be harder to distinguish.

Four shapes and four colours allow you to get sixteen possible combinations. On one figured target, you can place six differently shaped objects. A certain combination of the shape and color of the object should not be repeated on another target.

Four such targets are set in a shooting range at a distance of 4.5 – 6.5 m, which is typical for firing on the street. The shooter stands with his/her back to the targets. His/her training partner calls him/her a specific combination of the shape and colour of the object on the target and immediately gives the command to hit this target. The shooter must face the targets, find the right one, get the weapon and hit it in the center.

Do not you have a partner to train together? Then get sixteen business cards and draw on each your combination of shape and colour. Arrange these sixteen business cards on a coffee tray and place the tray under your feet on the floor, and turn your back to the targets of the shooting range. Prepare a chronometer with an audible alarm. Do not peek, take one of the business cards in your hand and wait for the chronometer to sound (programmed for a certain slowdown). Then quickly look at the business card and determine which combination of shape and colour on it is drawn. Drop the business card when you turn your face to the target situation. Quickly look at the target and find among them coincidental in form and color with a business card, and then without delay make a shot on this target.

After this exercise becomes easy for you, you can complicate the task by going to the choice of two business cards and shooting at two targets, respectively.

Some variants of the target environment may not include targets with the desired combination of shape and colour; in which case you do not have the right to shoot at them (they imitate random passers-by on the street). In addition, for this can attract personal responsibility.

The described exercise prepares the shooter for the transition in the future to shooting at popular targets. Targets of the latest generation allow to stick on them a variety of objects in order to change the nature and degree of threat that a person simulated on the target can represent. These items, which may include, for example, a club, a bottle with a broken bottom, a gun or a badge, are put into the hands of the figure to show whether the shooter should respond to the threat with a shot at the defeat.

The nature of the exercise does not change from this, except that in this case it is necessary to have a partner who should properly equip each target behind the back arrow. Targets should also be placed at different distances from the line of fire.

On command, you turn face to target. You quickly glance at them as you did in the case of targets with a different combination of shape and color of objects, but here you focus on the hands. The figure in whose hands the weapon is your opponent must be defeated. You choose your goals, looking for weapons in their hands, as it happens in real life. With an armed enemy, they do not enter into negotiations.

Do not try to aim at that. that is in the hands of your opponent: noting to himself that the enemy is holding a weapon, try to hit him in the vital parts of the body.

You must not only find those that pose a threat to you, but also assess the extent of this threat and determine the priority order for the destruction of targets, based on which of the opponents are able to kill you first. For example, a person with a knife at arm’s length is more dangerous than a person with a gun at a distance of 6.5 m.

Our exercise has the task of focusing the attention of an arrow on the opponent’s hands and teaching him to recognise what is in them. It is the opponent’s hands that. that is in them, they can kill you. They and what is in them, also determine the fate of your opponent. For greater realism, you can perform this exercise on the go, in low light and using a variety of pistols (revolvers).

We warn you against complacency and thoughts that you are prepared for fire contact, as soon as you learned how to react quickly to the first signal of a chronometer for shooting training. Look at the goals – they will tell you when you need to, and when you do not need to shoot


Secret Intelligence Service. (C-IV)

Operative Field Skills


Note :

>> When selecting a place during the day, it is necessary to comply with many requirements. It should ensure the secrecy of the Unit’s location, the ability to monitor the approaches to the location of the Unit, the ability to quickly take positions to repel an enemy attack from any direction, the tactical advantage of the Unit’s positions before the advancing, the ability of the personnel to move relatively calmly, without fear of being detected by the enemy. To conduct daytime, it is advisable to choose the dominant altitude or better ridge, which makes it difficult to find a group from the plain or neighbouring peaks. It is possible to organise a day in the folds of the terrain in such a way that the Unit is covered from at least three sides. On the heights surrounding the group, it is necessary to set up observers…… <<



(C-IV) Secret Intelligence Service

Operational Field Skills

A trained and experienced ‘pathfinder’ will find the traces left, regardless of how small they are. A successful pathfinder should :

Be patient and consistent.

Moving slowly, silently, simultaneously revealing and interpreting the tracks.

Avoid fast movement, as this can lead to the fact that the pathfinder will look or lose track, or fall into an enemy ambush.

Be persistent and able to continue the task when traces are lost or few due to bad weather conditions or the nature of the terrain.

Be observant and be able to see things that are not obvious at first sight.

Use smell and hearing as a supplement to vision and intuition.

Develop intuition and sense of those things that do not look right.

This ability can help the pathfinder again to take a lost track or discover additional tracks. As the pathfinder moves through the tracks, he/she uses the above skills to build a mental picture of the opponent, and ask the following questions:

How many people do I follow?

Are they men or women?

Are they adults or children?

What is their level of training?

What kind of kit do they have?

Are they healthy?

What is their moral state?

Do they know that they are being persecuted?

Do they know this area?

To answer these questions, the pathfinder uses available indicators, such as traces that indicate events that occurred at a certain time in a certain place. Comparing the indicators, the pathfinder gets answers to hi/hers questions.


Traces are visible marks left by a person or animal while passing through the terrain. A pathfinder should know the following categories of tracks:

I. Ground trails. These are traces left below the level of the knee. All ground trails are further divided into :

Large footprints. These are traces left on the ground by a group of 10 or more people.

Small footprints. These are tracks left on the ground by a group of 1 to 9 people.

II. High traces (also known as horse trails). These are traces left above the level of the knee. They are also divided into large and small.

III. Temporary traces. These are traces that disappear with time (for example, prints).

IV. Permanent traces. These are traces that disappear within weeks, or which remain forever (for example, broken branches or tattered bark).


One of the six trace traits determines any trace found by the pathfinder. These characteristics include :

a change in the initial state

change in colour

impact of weather conditions



reconnaissance data for immediate use


The change in the initial state takes place when something moves from its original position. A good example of such a change is a clear trace or imprint of the shoe on a soft, moist soil. Shoes or bare feet of a person who leaves prints, displaces the soil due to pressure, leaving a groove on the ground. A pathfinder can study such a trace and establish several important facts.

For example; a print left by an old shoe or bare foot may indicate a lack of necessary equipment. Changing the initial state can also be the result of clearing the road by cutting or cutting thick vegetation with a knife-machete; such traces are obvious to the most inexperienced pathfinder. People can involuntarily break more branches when they follow someone who cuts through the vegetation. People carrying a heavy load and stopping for rest can also leave traces of a change in the initial state. The prints left by the “sharp edges” can help identify the load. When it is put on the ground in a halt or in a camp, the load usually traps grass and branches. The leaning soldier also bends the vegetation.

Prints can indicate the direction, pace of movement, quantity, sex of a person, and then, whether he knows that he is being pursued. A fingerprint may be a whole print, but it usually looks like a ‘heel groove’ or an imprint of a ‘toe sock.’ Pathfinders can find footprints on the bottom of large leaves lying on the ground and which have not dried yet. If the prints are deep, and the step is long, there is a rapid movement. Very long big steps and deep prints, in which the prints of the socks are deeper than the heels, indicate a run. Impressions that are deep with short, slightly spaced steps, with obvious marks of dragging and pulling out, indicate a person carrying a heavy load

If members of the group understand that they are being persecuted, they can try to hide their tracks. People walking backwards have a short, irregular step. Impressions have an unnaturally deep sock, and the earth is thrown out in the direction of movement. Prints of this type are characterized by ‘recesses from the toe’ and prints of ‘heel shocks’, in contrast to the normal print. To determine the gender of a member of the group being pursued, the pathfinder must examine the size and location of the prints. Women tend to put their socks slightly inward when walking; men put their feet straight forward, or slightly set their socks out. The prints left by women are usually smaller and their pitch is usually shorter than that of men.

Usually, the person who goes to the group or column last, leaves the most clear traces; they become key traces. To facilitate the process of identifying these tracks, the pathfinder can make a measuring stack in several ways. One way is to cut out a stick to fix the length of the prints and make a notch on it, fixing the length of the step (usually 36 inches), as well as the length and width of the key print in its widest part. Then he/she can determine the angle of the turn of the foot in relation to the direction of motion. To identify key trails, the pathfinder must determine a specific feature or feature, such as a bad or worn out sole. If the track becomes vague, erased or merged with other tracks, the ranger can use his stack as a measuring device and, carefully examining the surface of the ground, identify the key trace.

Another way is to use your weapon / rifle as a measuring instrument; this will give the opportunity to quickly enter the battle when tracking down the enemy. Such a method will help the pathfinder stay on the track – he/she can count the number of those persecuted to 18 people. Can also use a step as a unit of measure to determine the key traces. To allocate a site for the subsequent counting of tracks and their study, the pathfinder uses two key tracks and the edges of the road or trails.

Use the method of the 36-inch section if the key trails are not obvious. In order to apply this method, the pathfinder uses the edges of the road or trails as the sides of the site. He/she measures a 36-inch-long plot on the road, counts every trace that is inside the site, and divides it by two. The resulting number gives an approximate number of people who left traces, but this method is less accurate than the method of measuring the step.

The pathfinder should check the entire territory to find pieces of clothing, thread, or dirt from shoes that could tear off or fall and stay on thorns, twigs or ground. Wild animals and birds, alarmed from their natural habitats, are another example of a change in the initial state. Screams of birds, frightened by unnatural movement, are a control indicator; the oscillation of the tops of high grass or shrub in windless weather indicates that somebody is moving in the vegetation. Changes in the ordinary life of insects and spiders, may indicate that someone has recently passed through.

Valuable indicators are; disturbed bee nests, anthills destroyed by someone else’s movement, or broken cobwebs. Spiders for catching flying insects often weave cobwebs across open spaces, paths or roads. If the persecuted person gets into these webs, he/she will leave the indicator. If the persecuted person tries to use the creek to mask the tracks, the pathfinder can still successfully pursue it. Algae and other aquatic plants can be disturbed if the person has made an incautious step or goes carelessly. He/she can move stones from the original position or turn them over, exposing the lighter or darker color of the inner side. A person entering or leaving the brook leaves traces of slip or imprints, torn off the bark on the roots or branches. As a rule, a person or an animal follows the path of least resistance. Thus, when inspecting the stream for signs of escape, the pathfinders will find them in open areas along the coast.


(C-IV). Secret Intelligence Service

Operational Field Skills


“On appearance, a person is good, but be aware that no one knows what is created inside them.”

“You will not grow unless you try to accomplish something beyond what you already know perfectly.”



(C-IV). Secret Intelligence Service

Operational Field Skills

Change in colour occurs when any substance from one organism or object falls into or is transferred to some other surface. The best example of colour change is the appearance of blood as a result of heavy bleeding. Bleeding often appears in the form of splashes or drops of blood, and not necessarily on the ground; they also appear on leaves or branches of trees and shrubs.

A pathfinder can also determine the degree of injury and how far a wounded person can leave without help. Such tracks can lead the pathfinder to the bodies of the deceased or indicate where they were taken. When studying bleeding, the pathfinder can determine the site of injury as follows :

If the blood drops appear to fall evenly, the bleeding most likely comes from a wound in the chest or trunk. If the blood drops are distributed in front, behind, or around, the injury probably occurred in the limb. Arterial wounds appear in the form of small drops of blood spilled through uniform intervals, as if from a jug. If the wound is venous, the blood runs constantly. Foamy blood of pink colour is characteristic for wounds to the lungs.

Injuries to the head give a slight bleeding, with the discharge of thick blood. Abdominal wounds often lead to mixing of blood with digestive juices, so such secretions have a light color and characteristic odour. Any body fluids (such as urine, blood and excrement) that get on the soil, trees, shrubs or stones, color the surface. The field method for determining traces of blood is spraying hydrogen peroxide onto a suspicious spot. If peroxide fades quickly, this is a sign of blood. Pathfinders can test this method during combat training under various environmental conditions.

On a calm, clear day, the leaves of bushes and small trees usually unfold in such a way that their dark upper part is visible. However, when a person passes through a certain area and breaks the position of the leaves, the light lower part of the leaves usually becomes visible. This colour change is also true for some types of grass.

Movement leads to the appearance of an unnatural colouring of the area, – radiance. The grass or leaves that the person has passed through will be damaged on the light side. Change in colour can also occur when a person carries his dirty shoes over the grass, stones and bushes. Therefore, to determine the motion and evaluate its direction, the change in color and the initial state are used together. The crushed leaves can stain the rocky ground, which is too hard to leave prints on it.

Roots, stones and weaving plants can be painted where the human foot has crushed leaves or berries. When traces are characterized by a change in colour, and a change in the initial state, the pathfinder may find it difficult to identify differences between them. For example, cloudy water can indicate recent movement; the transferred mud also changes the colour of the water. Dirty shoes can change the color of stones in a stream, seaweed can be transferred from stones to a creek, and can change the colour of other stones or the shore itself.

In the marshy ground dirty water is collected in new prints; However, over time, the mud settles and the water becomes transparent. A ranger can use this information to determine the age of the tracks. Usually the mud settles for about one hour, however this time is different in different terrains. Since muddy water moves along with the current, it is better to move downstream.


Rubbish is everything that remains on the ground and does not correspond to the given terrain. An inadequately prepared or poorly disciplined unit, moving around the terrain, can leave a path out of debris. Unmistakable signs of recent movement include chewing gum or chocolate wraps, cans or packs of food rations, cigarette butts, fires, excrement and/or bloodstained bandages.

The rain nails to the ground or flushes away the debris, softens the paper. Thrown tin cans from food rations, exposed to weathering factors, begin to rust on open edges; then the rust spreads to the centre. When assessing the age of debris, the pathfinder must take into account the weather conditions. As a basis for determining the time frame, he/she can use the last rainy rain or strong wind.

The pathfinder also needs to be familiar with the animal and plant world in the area. Even a cesspool, regardless of how well disguised, is a potential source of debris. The best rule that an operative must follow is to take everything he/she carries with him/her.


(C-IV). Secret Intelligence Service

Operational Field Skills



(C-IV). Secret Intelligence Service

Weather conditions can either help or hinder the pathfinder. They affect the tracks in a certain way, so the pathfinder (you) can determine their relative age. At the same time, wind, snow, rain or sunlight can completely destroy traces and prevent the pathfinder. You must know how the weather affects the soil, vegetation and other traces in the area. You cannot correctly determine the age of the tracks, until you understand the effect that the weather has on them.

For example, when the blood is fresh, it has a bright red color. Under the influence of air and sunlight, the blood first changes its color to dark red, and then, after evaporation of moisture, it becomes a dark brown crust. Scratches on trees or shrubs over time darken. Woody juice at first oozes, then under the influence of air hardens. Weather conditions have a huge impact on prints. Thus, by carefully studying the weather processes, the pathfinder can estimate the age of the print.

If the particles of the earth begin to fall in the print, it means that it is very fresh. Here the pathfinder should turn into a stalker, and start creeping up. If the edges of the print are dry and covered with a crust, the print itself is probably about an hour old. This process is very different in different terrains and should be considered only as an example. Light rain can round the edges of the print. Remembering the time of the last rain, the pathfinder can determine the time frame when traces are left. Heavy rain can erase all traces.

Paths that emerge via streams and rivers may look wet from the rain due to water draining from them from clothing or equipment. This is especially evident if a group of people leaves the stream in a column one by one. In this case, every person leaves water in their tracks. The presence of a damp, slowly drying track shows that the tracks are fresh. The wind dries up traces and brings them with rubbish, twigs or foliage. Knowing the behavior of the wind, the pathfinder can estimate the age of the tracks.

For example, a you may come to the following conclusion: “Now the wind is calm, but it was blowing an hour ago. Inside these tracks there is a small rubbish, so they must be hourly prescription. ” However, in this case, he should be sure that the rub was not crushed in the tracks when the prints were made, and did not get in the tracks when trying to hide them. The wind influences sounds and smells. If the wind blows towards you (down the track), sounds and smells can be detected. Conversely, if the wind blows from you (up the track), it must be extremely cautious, since the wind will carry the sounds to the enemy.

You can determine the direction of the wind, pouring out a handful of dust or dry grass from the shoulder level. Turning in the same direction as the wind blows, you can catch the sounds, putting your hands to your ears and slowly turning. When the sounds become stronger, then you become face to face their source. In quiet, windless weather, the sound to a tracker can convey air currents that can be so light that they cannot be felt.

In the evening the air cools and moves from the mountains down to the valleys. If you climb uphill at the end of the day or at night, and if another wind is missing, air currents can move directly to you. As soon as the morning sun warms the air in the valleys, it will move to the mountains. You must take these factors into account when selecting and plotting patrol routes or planning other actions. Holding the wind at your face, you will catch the sounds and smells coming from your goal or from the group you are pursuing.

You must also consider the position of the sun. To lead a fire directly in the direction of the sun is hard, but if you have the sun behind you and the headwind, you will gain a slight advantage.


You should take into account the features of nutrition, such as: Red meat. Tobacco. Alcohol. Certain spices. Due to the fact that army stores usually appear in the area of ​​the operation, many military personnel buy and use personal hygiene products that have a fragrant smell. Soap and shower gels cause persistent, characteristic smells that are secreted through the sweat glands. Such smells will be especially obvious for groups with search dogs, but they can be strong enough for a person to feel them.


The pathfinder mentally unites all the tracks and interprets what is seen, in order to form a complete picture of the events for the immediate use of the intelligence received. For example, tracks can indicate the proximity of the enemy, so you need extreme secrecy.

You communicates what you saw, and not about the existence of what you saw. There are many ways in which you can determine the gender and size of the group, the nature of the load and the type of equipment. Time frames can be determined by assessing the extent to which natural factors influence the traces.

Intelligence for immediate use is information regarding an adversary that can be used to achieve surprise, bring it out of balance, or prevent its exit from the area. The commander can have many sources of information – reconnaissance reports, documents or prisoners of war. These sources can be combined to form data regarding the enemy’s last location, future plans and goals.

Trace gives the commander certain information, which is the basis for immediate action. For example, the unit can report that there are no men of draft age in the village. This information is important only when it is combined with other data to create a general picture of the enemy operating in the area. Therefore, the pathfinder, who studies the tracks and reports that he/she is 30 minutes behind a known enemy unit that moves north and is in a certain place, gives the commander information on the basis of which he/she can act immediately.


(C-IV). Secret Intelligence Service


Note (we like notes) :

. . .and you cannot move along the paths, roads and folds of the terrain – they are controlled by enemy secret posts. Moving will have to ‘cross’, but the enemy also knows about this and try to control all the places in the mountains where you can go.

In order not to run into an ambush or secret-post, you must first of all keep a constant circular observation in motion. How it’s done? It is impossible to run through the eyes (and this is impossible) the whole strip of terrain with the speed of walking. The commander points to each direction (sector) of observation, for example left-forward. At the same time, a certain area is caught by the eyes horizontally, from the landmark to the landmark, and the view runs along it first from the right to the left, then the zigzag higher up the slope and, conversely, down the slope, over the places just visited. During this time, while the observer has undergone the length of the observation site, he must look through the area in the above zigzag in both length and top to bottom. And then he begins in the same way to inspect another similar ‘approaching’ section, from the former extreme landmark to the planned new one.

To obtain information in motion, it is necessary to be attentive, observant, to see the situation with lateral (peripheral) vision, to possess sharp trained hearing and impeccable sense of smell. The enemy can be everywhere. To detect it, all the organs of perception must be involved. When observing in motion, it is necessary to notice and fix even the smallest and seemingly insignificant details and instantly draw the only correct conclusions from these manifestations. There should be no trifles at the same time – the price of the missed trifle will be very high.

When observing in motion, rapid detection of danger is possible if attention is focused on tactical areas of the terrain (zones) where the enemy is most likely to be located. Similarly, as with any type of observation, the enemy is detected by signs. For example, a disguised secret post often gives the shine of metal parts (machine guns) or glasses of optical instruments. The secret post can often be detected by changes in the flight of birds – they jump sharply from those who are there and suddenly discovered people. A trampled path can lead to a secret post. The secret post can give out a cluster of blood-sucking insects and a tobacco smell above it, which in nature is felt far and clearly.

Disguised ambushes, reinforced with machine guns, and fortified long-term earthworks are recognized by black elongated cracks under the bush. This embrasure for the machine gun, and they can be of different sizes. They will not necessarily be black – they can be rectangular spots with dried grass, if camouflage flaps of turf are placed on the embrasures. Usually below the slope from such a point is the cleared space – the sector of shelling in the tactical direction.

In the mountains, behind each stone or a rocky fragment, an enemy can hide. In the mountainous and mountainous woodland, one must be especially attentive and observant. A large stone or a small boulder near may be a sniper or an observer (even attired in dressing gown), or a machine gunner – so the reconnaissance team must be in constant readiness for combat.

During reconnaissance there is an iron and immutable rule – do not rush. Move slowly, carefully, silently and imperceptibly. From time to time it is necessary to make stops, look around, observe and listen mainly. In the case of counter-guerrilla search, progress is made outside roads and trails, when moving from one convenient place for observation, having a visual perspective, to another such place. Or from one insecure place, where an invisible movement of the enemy is possible, to another such place, and in such places careful listening is conducted.

At stops before such points, which are nodal for both ‘partisans’ and special groups, places are carefully examined and listened to where the enemy’s hidden location and hheir sudden attack from the ambush are possible. These places are predicted tactically by the peculiarities of the landscape. A person with trained observation and tactical thinking assesses and predicts a tactical situation intuitively. Such qualities plus the bestial instinct of a trained intelligence officer make it possible to anticipate the possible posing by guerrillas of ambushes and fire points (from which it is more convenient for the enemy to shoot and advance for attack and counter-capture). Such military advancement is attached to the natural pattern of the terrain, in the footsteps, over the sloping or trampled grass cover, along bent, bound or bent branches to the earth and especially on dark spots in the depth of vegetation.

When moving in order to camouflage it is necessary to adhere to gullies, clefts, ravines, other folds of the terrain and natural shelters, as well as shaded places. . .


(C-IV) Operational Field Skills. Mental and Physical




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Mental and Physical

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