Secret Intelligence Service
Mental and Physical VI
Special Operations in Counter-Terror
Welcome back to the Unit
This is to continue the Mental and Physical Section – Operational Field Skills
Remember, that if you strive for something with all your heart, you will be able to achieve what you want, even if it seems impossible, even if all the surrounding people openly tell you that it is impossible
Attention : A note before we begin :
The cause of deterioration of health and a decrease in the sports results may be violations in diet. It is known that excessive weight hampers physical activity and thereby leads to disruption of biological processes in the muscle and bone tissues and their weakening.
Since these tissues have to withstand significant loads under the influence of their own body weight, as well as additional loads during training and competitive activities, the risk of their trauma increases immeasurably. In addition, overweight, along with stressful situations and a high degree of emotional tension, characteristic of sport in general and small arms in particular, contributes to the emergence and development of cardiovascular diseases. The main cause of obesity, in addition to lack of motor activity, is inadequate nutrition.
To the athlete’s diet special hygienic requirements are made : the need to observe the order of meals during the day, the suitability of specialization, climatic conditions and, to some extent, household habits. Miscalculations in this regard are unacceptable, since they can largely negate the great preparatory work.
Certain hygiene requirements are imposed on the food itself. First of all, it should be benign, have appropriate temperature, it is easy and well assimilated, have a small volume and at the same time provide a feeling of satiety, taste, smell and appearance and cause appetite.
Food should be diverse, consisting of various products of animal and vegetable origin, contain a sufficient amount of fiber, food substances necessary for the construction of tissues and organs and the normal course of physiological processes: proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and water. Food should be consumed in an amount sufficient to compensate for the energy expenditure of the body.
For sportsmen and women-shooters the following norms of daily ration are recommended:
proteins -2,1 … 2,3 g
fats – 2,1 … 2,3 g
carbohydrates – 8.5 … 9.0 g
Caloric content of the diet is 60 … 62 kcal. These data are based on 1 kg of weight. In order to determine the daily calorie content of the diet and the composition of the ration of a particular athlete, these figures must be multiplied by the weight of the athlete’s body. Caloric content of the food ration can be calculated approximately by menu-layouts, i.e., a list of dishes in the daily menu with the indication of the number of foods taken for cooking each dish. Counting is done with the help of special tables of caloric content and chemical composition of food products.
To calculate the content of nutrients and calories from this table, the weight of the product specified in the menu-layout must be multiplied by the percentage of a particular food substance and divided the result by 100. By counting the number of proteins, fats and carbohydrates, as well as calories in each individual product, taken for preparing a certain dish, and then adding the data obtained for each meal and for each meal, you can find out the caloric value of breakfast, lunch, dinner and the whole daily diet as a whole.
This method of determining the calorie intake is widely used in the practice of daily monitoring. It allows you to check the correctness of the compilation of food layouts from the standpoint of established norms, and also gives a certain idea of the daily calorie intake and distribution during the day.
To clarify the caloric content of daily nutrition, depending on the daily routine, the nature of the training and the amount of training loads can be done with the help of the athlete’s timing. In this case, it is recommended to start from the calculated data proposed in the table. Making the timing of the day, you need to group different activities (sleep, toilet, household chores, professional service work, training, etc.) and calculate the time spent on each of these activities.
When determining the expenditure of time for a sport load, only the time directly spent on the exercise should be considered. The trainer’s explanations, rest, forced breaks should be classified as “walking”, “sitting”, “theoretical studies”, etc. In the event that it is difficult to find a table heading for the load or sports activity, you can take a character close to it.
After compiling the timing, the value indicated in the table should be multiplied by the duration of this action, then the results are summed and the result multiplied by the weight of the athlete’s body. The result of the calculations made is that the energy expenditure in calories should be increased by 10 percent in order to eliminate the error due to possible inaccuracies in the timing of certain activities. All this will amount to the value of daily caloric intake.
It is necessary to know that each gram of proteins and carbohydrates gives the body 4.1 kcal, and a gram of fat – 9.3 kcal. When organizing meals, one should always remember one simple truth: in whatever form excessive amounts of calories enter the body – in the form of fats, proteins or carbohydrates – they invariably turn into adipose tissue.
Interesting in this connection are the practical conclusions of two Swedish doctors and researchers – L. Peterson and P. Renström (1981) : 1 kg of adipose tissue contains 6000 calories. The excess of 50 calories per day in a year will amount to 18,000 calories, which corresponds to 3 kg of additional “live” weight. And what is 50 calories? It’s four pieces of sugar or a small piece of chocolate. In order to neutralize these 50 calories, you have to run or walk a quick step a distance of one kilometer. Here’s how you can spend 100 calories:
running – 8 … 10 minutes
running at high speed – 8 minutes
cycling or pedaling on the bike – 11 min
swimming, skating – 12 min
the game of badminton – 12 … 15 min
performance of gymnastic exercises – 15 min
a game of football, hockey
hockey with ball – 15 min
game of tennis
walk walking at a fast pace: – 15 … 18 min
work in the garden – 20 … 25 min
walk at a slow pace – 25 … 30 min
The data given are calculated for a person with an average degree of physical development.
Modesty is the foundation of the strong, and pride is the support of the weak
AUDIBILITY AT NIGHT (C-IV)
Secret Intelligence Service
Audibility at night is much better in wet weather, after rain, in mountains, near water and when the wind blows from the side of the enemy.
In windless weather in the forest, the person’s footsteps can be heard at a distance of up to 40 m, individual people’s speech – up to 80 m, several people – up to 120 m, whispers – up to 20 m, knocking metal parts of equipment, loading weapons – up to 300 m, rustling clothes – up to 40-50m. Cigarette smoke in the forest can be felt for 300-350 meters. The specific smell of unwashed body is 100-120 meters. Garlic spirit is 70 meters.
Noise standard of small group movement : at a distance of 50 m there should be no sound of equipment knocking, for 20 m – rustling of cloth against fabric. At a distance of 40 m there should be no sound of marching movements, unbound shoe. Steps in shoes equipped with soft soles or knotted should not be heard at a distance of 10 m.
ORGANISING DEFENCE IN POPULATED AREAS
Secret Intelligence Service. (C-IV)
What should you primarily pay attention to when organizing defence in populated areas? Your positions should have a good firing zone and be on the most probable routes of movement of the enemy’s combat forces. Positions should be well strengthened. When choosing a position, remember that most modern buildings have thin walls, fixed either on a steel frame, or on concrete reinforcement structures, and large windows.
Ideal are buildings built of brick, stone and reinforced structures. The building chosen for positions should have more than one floor and basements: the upper floors can be protected from artillery and mortar fire, while the basement can become a health center, a storehouse of ammunition, weapons, equipment, food and water.
Before the start of any fighting, buildings must be prepared for defence. Preparation includes the removal of window and other glasses (with the explosion turning into many deadly fragments), stretching in the windows of the grid in order to avoid throwing grenades. In residential buildings it is recommended to leave curtains on the windows, since they screen the movement inside the room. Alternatively, you can use burlap, nailing it to the window frames.
Ceilings and walls of buildings should be strengthened with the help of wooden beams. Sandbags are usually used when locking the front door, as well as to strengthen the walls and floor in order to protect against small arms and small debris. Bags can be used to build bunkers inside buildings. These bunkers are usually used for machine-gunning and sniper calculations and are built at a distance of 1.5 meters from the window to hide smoke and flames when shooting. Other shooting embrasures can be organised in roofs, in attics (separate bricks are knocked out of the wall) and directly on the roof using natural relief and sandbags
There is a practice of placing anti-tank calculations on the roof with the aim of hitting armoured vehicles from the side of the most poorly protected – from above.
Shooting and anti-tank calculations must be placed on positions giving the maximum possibility of firing in the vertical and horizontal planes. For the purpose of disinformation of the enemy, it is possible to display false embrasures with the help of black paint on the walls, as well as creating illusions of well-fortified positions in empty buildings. The windowsills are closed by a board with nails. The stairs collapse or overlap with barbed wire, or the The doors are covered with nails, just like the sill. Moves between floors inside the house are made by means of a ladder through the passageways made in the floor and ceiling. During the battle in the building, on different floors, the staircase between the rooms can be simply cleaned.
Barbed wire can be used as an addition to existing natural obstacles (hedges, fences, walls), as well as to prevent attacks from the roof. Gutters, and various fasteners that can be used by the attacker to penetrate the building, must be removed. In ****, insurgents often left bare-bare wires dangling from the roof under tension in places of possible attack. Before the fighting begins, all the available containers, including bathtubs and wash basins, should be filled with water, since water may be needed not only to quench thirst, but also to extinguish possible fires.
Mines, both anti-tank and anti-personnel, can be used to organise ‘passing funnels’ into the combat zone with the aim of directing enemy combat equipment and personnel along a certain route, as well as direct approaches to defensive targets in order to reduce the rate of attack.
Positions must be kept to the limit of possibilities, but only a fanatic is ready to die protecting them. The entrances and exits, including the openings in the walls of adjacent buildings, can be used for rapid movement with the aim of both improving fire efficiency and retiring if the enemy’s fire becomes too strong. qIn any case, the most appropriate tactic is not to remain passive. Mobile combat patrols are used to conduct combat operations outside the fortifications, as well as for reconnaissance purposes to detect enemy personnel and combat equipment. The task of these mobile groups includes actions that will not allow the enemy to draw up a detailed plan for defensive structures, as well as actions aimed at destroying the personnel and equipment of the enemy and demoralizing the attackers even before they enter into hostilities with the main forces.
It should be noted that air support in the settlements is not so effective (as confirmed during air strikes in Bosnia). The most logical option of using air support is the destruction of military equipment and personnel on the approaches to the defended facility and the destruction of columns of equipment, as well as convoys with ammunition and ammunition. Once ground formations are involved in hostilities, it becomes difficult even to use combat helicopters without causing damage to their units.
Secret Intelligence Service. (C-IV)
The equipment used by the military personnel of intelligence units is important for the following reasons. First, some items of equipment are expensive and, if lost, can not always be replenished. Secondly, the very existence of a soldier and the effectiveness of his actions depend to a large extent on the equipment. Hence the need for proper packing and care of the items of equipment. Individual and group weapons Proper preparation and saving of weapons, no doubt, is the most important stage in the preparation of an operative / soldier for combat operations. The following rules must be observed:
The belt must be secured and the metal parts wrapped around the tape.
Correctly select the length of the slings for clamping the weapon when making a parachute jump.
The sight should be set to the minimum distance.
The possession for cleaning weapons.
Must be packed in a waterproof container. The accessory kit should include :
Thinner / grease.
A piece of cloth.
Unloading waistcoat :
The property carried in the unloading waistcoat should be placed in such a way as to ensure maximum comfort and its preservation. Incorrect placement leads to abrasions and, in certain situations, to breakage of items of equipment.
Handling with a discharge vest:
Avoid rough handling.
Avoid unnecessary improvised improvements.
Regularly check and, if necessary, repair the vest.
It is advisable to supplement the vest with attachment points for items of equipment, for example, straps with buttons.
It is necessary to camouflage the vest regularly.
Preparing the contents of the vest:
All property to be stacked in a vest must be grouped, for example, a survival kit, including a mirror for signaling, a stroboscopic flashlight, etc.
All items should be attached using strong dark cords. Chords should be of sufficient length, providing convenient use of such items as, for example, a compass, a gun, etc.
Stores should be stacked as follows:
Bullets – right
It is advisable to attach a tape to the bottom of the magazine for quick removal from the pocket.
Fragile items must be wrapped in protective material.
All items must be camouflaged.
All items should be checked regularly for serviceability, cleaning and, if necessary, repaired.
Objects should not make noise when driving.
Ensure that all contents are protected from water ingress.
Objects often used should be at hand, for example, a compass.
The contents of the vest. The contents of the vest should include at least :
Mirror for signals.
A pistol with two magazines.
Shooting device for shooting signal rockets.
Stroboscopic flashlight with infrared filter.
Emergency food ration.
Survival Kit, including :
Windproof matches or a lighter.
Pocket knife or knife for freshness.
Fishing line and set of hooks.
Flask with water (2 liters).
First aid kit, including :
Tablets for water disinfection.
Tablets from a stomach disorder.
Ammunition used in the first place (stores, tapes, grenades, etc.).
Wipe, brush and grease
Despite the fact that this piece of equipment is least loved by soldiers, it allows you to carry weights in the most convenient way and provides relative comfort in the field. When using a backpack, the following rules must be observed:
Must be fully camouflaged.
A spare set of shoulder straps must be placed between the frame and the support straps.
Spare rings and studs for attaching shoulder straps can be replaced with parachute slings or bolts and nuts.
Regularly check the wear of the frame, shoulder belts and backpack straps.
Loose tapes should be tied up or hidden.
Avoid unnecessary improvements.
The contents of the backpack should not make a noise.
Lay the property in such a way that items that are used frequently (sleeping bag, etc.) can be taken or used (radio station) without pulling out other items.
Property that can be damaged by rain should be packed in watertight containers.
Jars should have cases of dark or camouflaged fabric that act as a heat insulator and reduce noise.
Flask covers must have rubber seals for tight closing.
The lids must be tied to the flasks to prevent them from being lost in the event of danger.
Empty polyethylene bags can be filled with water and used to store it in a game or for a long time at the observation post.
Tanks with water should be evenly distributed at the sides and at the top of the backpack to accommodate the gravity as high as possible.
The amount of water depends on the situation, terrain, weather conditions and availability of natural water sources. On average, it is necessary to take 2 litres of water per day at an average pace of the march.
Dietary supply :
All products intended for consumption within one day must be packed in a separate package.
Products should be packed in waterproof containers and packed in a patrol backpack.
Use a plastic or wooden spoon to reduce noise.
Containers for products should be camouflaged and not have identification labels.
It is necessary to have small bags for food waste, so as not to leave traces of stay.
Food rations should be placed at the bottom of the backpack.
The number of food products depends on the duration of the actions and the individual characteristics of the soldier. The number of products per day is approximately 1 can of canned meat (or vegetarian), 20 grams of rice and 2 chocolate bars.
General provisions :
A medical first aid kit should be placed in the upper left pocket of the backpack. On the pocket valve, you must put a black cross to indicate its contents.
When using gas tiles, it should be packed together with food in a patrol backpack, and not be transported in the central compartment of the backpack interspersed with other items. It is recommended to pack the tile in a bag to reduce noise.
The radio must be packed in a separate emergency bag, which can easily be removed in case of danger.
A piece of camouflage net (2 x 2 m), folded into a roll, must be attached to the bottom of the backpack to disguise the soldier and property at stops. The colour of the network is determined by the type of terrain, vegetation and season.
Property transferred to itself :
• Map. • Notepad, pencil and elastic. • Coordinate. • Communication program.
Usually, soldiers try to take too much extra stuff with them, which leads to a reduction in speed and a lot of strain on the back. It is necessary to take with you only the necessary things.
It is the duty of every operative to constantly maintain the property in good order and clean condition. Failure in property or delay in shooting can not only jeopardise the fulfillment of the task, but also cost lives, your own and others.
In construction – Admin
Secret Intelligence Service
Mental and Physical
Adversitate. Custodi. Per Verum